草木也知愁 发表于 2009-7-26 20:40:37

0910AW SPECTACULAR之【同主题写作】第十二期 Issue43 effective& moral

本帖最后由 草木也知愁 于 2009-7-26 20:53 编辑




43"To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards."



前言

此篇继续历史总高频前十位的同主题活动,重点帮助大家去摆正准确把握单词释义的重要性,同时和我的“ISSUE--introspect into our own minds--about examples”贴一起,帮大家明白如何去积累真正适用自己的例子素材库



目录

一、单词释义

二、题目拆解

三、思维展开

四、题目讨论

五、相关素材



一、单词释义

词意解释原则:选取韦氏字典中commonly-accepted的解释,注意不要从选取词意上就剑走偏锋选择生僻意,那样会聪明反被聪明误。同时通过查词,大家还可以找到这次的详细用法以及同反义词,对在实际写作的过程中有很大的好处

提示:此题的单词释义把握尤其重要,非常非常重要,至少有四处是单纯凭借粗糙的中文翻译无法把握要点的地方,而且这些要点如果把握不好,轻易形成思路、提纲、作文,那么就会偏题甚至跑题!要知道,无论你的文字驾驭力多么强,无论你的逻辑思维多么完善深刻,一旦跑题就全废掉了。

而且市面上本题的相关参考资料,只要你们用心去琢磨了都可以发现其中或多或少的错误,千万不要依赖那些!切记

做本题的单词意思把握的时候请自己问这样几个问题:

1、effective到底是什么?有效的?有影响的?效率高的?同时很多需要对effective有准确把握的题目应给如何去理解这个呢?

2、public official到底包括什么?Does public official include business man?

3、怎么样才算maintain?

4、这个highest我们应该怎么对待?

5、ethical and moral standards到底是什么,即使是中文翻译,你真的明白是啥么?


effective adj.

1 a : producing a decided, decisive, or desired effect <an effective policy> b : IMPRESSIVE, STRIKING <a gold lamé fabric studded with effective⋯precious stones ― Stanley Marcus>
2 : ready for service or action <effective manpower>
3 : ACTUAL <the need to increase effective demand for goods>
4 : being in effect : OPERATIVE <the tax becomes effective next year>
5 of a rate of interest : equal to the rate of simple interest that yields the same amount when the interest is paid once at the end of the interest period as a quoted rate of interest does when calculated at compound interest over the same period ― compare NOMINAL 4

synonyms EFFECTIVE, EFFECTUAL, EFFICIENT, EFFICACIOUS mean producing or capable of producing a result. EFFECTIVE stresses the actual production of or the power to produce an effect <an effective rebuttal>. EFFECTUAL suggests the accomplishment of a desired result especially as viewed after the fact <the measures to stop the pilfering proved effectual>. EFFICIENT suggests an acting or a potential for action or use in such a way as to avoid loss or waste of energy in effecting, producing, or functioning <an efficient small car>. EFFICACIOUS suggests possession of a special quality or virtue that gives effective power <a detergent that is efficacious in removing grease>.

包括有effective这个词的topics

6、"The most effective way to understand contemporary culture is to analyze the trends of its youth."

24"People in positions of power are most effective when they exercise caution and restraint in the use of that power."

43"To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards."

51"Education will be truly effective only when it is specifically designed to meet the individual needs and interests of each student."

74"The most effective way to communicate an idea or value to large groups of people is through the use of images, not language."

109"The purpose of many advertisements is to make consumers want to buy a product so that they will 'be like' the person in the ad. This practice is
effective because it not only sells products but also helps people feel better about themselves."

149"The most practical and effective way to protect wilderness areas is to attract more tourists to these areas through environmentally sensitive
projects."

160"The most essential quality of an effective leader is the ability to remain consistently committed to particular principles and objectives. Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by shifts in popular opinion will accomplish little."

167"It is impossible for an effective political leader to tell the truth all the time. Complete honesty is not a useful virtue for a politician."

202"Unlike great thinkers and great artists, the most effective political leaders must often yield to public opinion and abandon principle for the sake of compromise."

leader n.

1 : something that leads: as a : a primary or terminal shoot of a plant b : TENDON, SINEW c plural : dots or hyphens (as in an index) used to lead the eye horizontally : ELLIPSIS 2 d chiefly British : a newspaper editorial e (1) : something for guiding fish into a trap (2) : a short length of material for attaching the end of a fishing line to a lure or hook f : LOSS LEADER g : something that ranks first h : a blank section at the beginning or end of a reel of film or recorded tape
2 : a person who leads: as a : GUIDE, CONDUCTOR b (1) : a person who directs a military force or unit (2) : a person who has commanding authority or influence c (1) : the principal officer of a British political party (2) : a party member chosen to manage party activities in a legislative body (3) : such a party member presiding over the whole legislative body when the party constitutes a majority d (1) : CONDUCTOR C (2) : a first or principal performer of a group
3 : a horse placed in advance of the other horses of a team

public n.

1 a : exposed to general view : OPEN b : WELL-KNOWN, PROMINENT c : PERCEPTIBLE, MATERIAL
2 a : of, relating to, or affecting all the people or the whole area of a nation or state <public law> b : of or relating to a government c : of, relating to, or being in the service of the community or nation
3 a : of or relating to people in general : UNIVERSAL b : GENERAL, POPULAR
4 : of or relating to business or community interests as opposed to private affairs : SOCIAL
5 : devoted to the general or national welfare : HUMANITARIAN
6 a : accessible to or shared by all members of the community b : capitalized in shares that can be freely traded on the open market ― often used with go
7 : supported by public funds and private contributions rather than by income from commercials <public radio> <public television>

official n.

1 : one who holds or is invested with an office : OFFICER <government officials>
2 : one who administers the rules of a game or sport especially as a referee or umpire

maintain v.

1 : to keep in an existing state (as of repair, efficiency, or validity) : preserve from failure or decline <maintain machinery>
2 : to sustain against opposition or danger : uphold and defend <maintain a position>
3 : to continue or persevere in : CARRY ON, KEEP UP <couldn't maintain his composure>
4 a : to support or provide for <has a family to maintain> b : SUSTAIN <enough food to maintain life>
5 : to affirm in or as if in argument : ASSERT <maintained that the earth is flat>

synonyms MAINTAIN, ASSERT, DEFEND, VINDICATE, JUSTIFY mean to uphold as true, right, just, or reasonable. MAINTAIN stresses firmness of conviction <steadfastly maintained his innocence>. ASSERT suggests determination to make others accept one's claim <asserted her rights>. DEFEND implies maintaining in the face of attack or criticism <defended his voting record>. VINDICATE implies successfully defending <his success vindicated our faith in him>. JUSTIFY implies showing to be true, just, or valid by appeal to a standard or to precedent <the action was used to justify military intervention>.

ethical adj.

1 : of or relating to ethics <ethical theories>
2 : involving or expressing moral approval or disapproval <ethical judgments>
3 : conforming to accepted standards of conduct <ethical behavior>
4 of a drug : restricted to sale only on a doctor's prescription
synonyms see MORAL

moral n.

1 a : of or relating to principles of right and wrong in behavior : ETHICAL <moral judgments> b : expressing or teaching a conception of right behavior <a moral poem> c : conforming to a standard of right behavior d : sanctioned by or operative on one's conscience or ethical judgment <a moral obligation> e : capable of right and wrong action <a moral agent>
2 : probable though not proved : VIRTUAL <a moral certainty>
3 : perceptual or psychological rather than tangible or practical in nature or effect <a moral victory> <moral support>

synonyms MORAL, ETHICAL, VIRTUOUS, RIGHTEOUS, NOBLE mean conforming to a standard of what is right and good. MORAL implies conformity to established sanctioned codes or accepted notions of right and wrong <the basic moral values of a community>. ETHICAL may suggest the involvement of more difficult or subtle questions of rightness, fairness, or equity <committed to the highest ethical principles>. VIRTUOUS implies moral excellence in character <not a religious person, but virtuous nevertheless>. RIGHTEOUS stresses guiltlessness or blamelessness and often suggests the sanctimonious <wished to be righteous before God and the world>. NOBLE implies moral eminence and freedom from anything petty, mean, or dubious in conduct and character <had the noblest of reasons for seeking office>.

standard n.

1 : a conspicuous object (as a banner) formerly carried at the top of a pole and used to mark a rallying point especially in battle or to serve as an emblem
2 a : a long narrow tapering flag that is personal to an individual or corporation and bears heraldic devices b : the personal flag of the head of a state or of a member of a royal family c : an organization flag carried by a mounted or motorized military unit d : BANNER 1
3 : something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example : CRITERION <quite slow by today's standards>
4 : something set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value, or quality
5 a : the fineness and legally fixed weight of the metal used in coins b : the basis of value in a monetary system <the gold standard>
6 : a structure built for or serving as a base or support
7 a : a shrub or herb grown with an erect main stem so that it forms or resembles a tree b : a fruit tree grafted on a stock that does not induce dwarfing
8 a : the large odd upper petal of a papilionaceous flower (as of the pea) b : one of the three inner usually erect and incurved petals of an iris
9 : a musical composition (as a song) that has become a part of the standard repertoire

synonyms STANDARD, CRITERION, GAUGE, YARDSTICK, TOUCHSTONE mean a means of determining what a thing should be. STANDARD applies to any definite rule, principle, or measure established by authority <standards of behavior>. CRITERION may apply to anything used as a test of quality whether formulated as a rule or principle or not <questioned the critic's criteria for excellence>. GAUGE applies to a means of testing a particular dimension (as thickness, depth, diameter) or figuratively a particular quality or aspect <polls as a gauge of voter dissatisfaction>. YARDSTICK is an informal substitute for CRITERION that suggests quantity more often than quality <housing construction as a yardstick of economic growth>. TOUCHSTONE suggests a simple test of the authenticity or value of something intangible <fine service is one touchstone of a first-class restaurant>.

&copy; 2005 Merriam-Webster, Incorporated

这里我列出pewcg8同学的观点,算作比较成熟的一个分析,可以帮助大家看一下,但是同时这里只是代表了他自己的分析,对于本题是还有更多可以去挖掘的东西,请大家一定要自己勤于动脑:

effective:翻译成"高效的"并不准确,并且对破题毫无帮助,根据韦氏词典,这里的effective解释成IMPRESSIVE, STRIKING应该更合适,可以理解为原题翻译成的"杰出的"含义

official之所以这个词我觉得要解释,是因为这个词的范围的宽窄,可以直接决定我下面行文涉及的方面.我开始就有这样的疑惑,a public official是不是必须写成政治家呢?难道商业上的领导,学习上的领导(学科带头人)不可以吗?于是我也仔细查了这个词汇:one who holds or is invested with an office/One who holds an office or a position, especially one who acts in a subordinate capacity for an institution such as a corporation or governmental agency.公务员,职员:一个供职的人,尤指在如公司或政府机构的下属机构工作的人那么我的理解是只要是public机构的任何官员,都可以包括到我的论述中来,这样就大大扩展了论述的范围.




二、题目拆解

To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards.

[主] a public official(ALPO)
[主语限定] To be an effective leader

[谓] maintain
[谓语限定] must

[宾] ethical and moral standards(HEMS)
[宾语限定] the highest

逻辑] HEMS是ALPO的必要条件(非充分)--必须要有HEMS才能使ALPO成立,ALPO必定具备HEMS(但是不是仅仅有HEMS就可以使ALPO成立)


三、思维展开

照旧我还是要首先贴出二十问来督促大家用这些来问自己,然后收集思路亮点:

1. What does X mean? (Definition)

2. What are the various features of X? (Description)

3. What are the component parts of X? (Simple Analysis)

4. How is X made or done? (Process Analysis)

5. How should X be made or done? (Directional Analysis)

6. What is the essential function of X? (Functional Analysis)

7. What are the causes of X? (Causal Analysis) BE EACW

8. What are the consequences of X? (Causal Analysis)

9. What are the types of X? (Classification)

10. How is X like or unlike Y? (Comparison)

11. What is the present status of X? (Comparison)

12. What is the significance of X? (Interpretation)

13. What are the facts about X? (Reportage)

14. How did X happen? (Narration)

15. What kind of person is X? (Characterization/Profile)

16. What is my personal response to X? (Reflection)

17. What is my memory of X? (Reminiscence)

18. What is the value of X? (Evaluation)

19. What are the essential major points or features of X? (Summary)

20. What case can be made for or against X? (Persuasion)

Q1:most这个标准能否确定 从空间,时间的统一?随着社会发展,一些概念都是不停变化的,那么有没有most的东西呢?古代和现代的一样么?地域和地域一样么?

Q2:effective和moral是不是联系起来的?为了effective就必须什么的,这个逻辑成立么?

Q3:这个必要性、充分性之间的关系如何去理清呢?

Necessary causes:
If x is a necessary cause of y, then the presence of y necessarily implies the presence of x. The presence of x, however, does not imply that y will occur.

Sufficient causes:
If x is a sufficient cause of y, then the presence of x necessarily implies the presence of y. However, another cause z may alternatively cause y. Thus the presence of y does not imply the presence of x.


破题方法分析

摘自0610G同主题runningpiggy的破题分析
http://bbs.gter.net/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=500234&highlight=

其中有很多可以激发一下大家思维的东西,可以好好看一下,结合上面的思维展开去做小组的brainstorming

一、有保留地同意观点,三段式的写法,两道三段去论述伦理道德标准对effective起到的作用(说实在话,我觉得这样实在不好写),让步段论述除了伦理道德标准还需要点别的。具体如何写伦理道德标准的正面作用,可以参考下面:

① 分层次来写(分是否公众人物来写,这两个的区别就是舆论监查的差别,作为official,如果这官大到成为了公众人物,那对于ethical和moral的要求就比较大了。相反,如果只是小官,那当然要求没那么多,因为放在他们身上的关注要小很多)

② 分政治体制来写(在民主社会和集中制社会存在的不同,不仅仅是政治体制本身,而且在这些社会里,对于media或者各种cencorship也是很不一样的)

③ 按照自己的想法把遵守伦理道德标准对effective的重要性,这里的写法多样,下面将会在反面进行举例说明。

二、有保留地反对观点,与上面同理。下面以反对观点的写法来具体说明一下。

论点:尽管highest ethical and moral standards对一个public official变成一个effective leader起了应有的作用,可前者并不是后者的必要条件,而存在着别的一些更重要的条件,比如capability of the official,和interrelationship with the subordinates。

TS1:官员的能力是最本质地决定着工作是否effective的因素。

具体论述的时候我认为首先要定义一下什么才是effective leader,一个effective leader,作出的决定需要是正确的,而且作出决定后他的属下会很好地帮他完成工作,并且最后能取得好的结果。对于第一点,要求的就是capability of the official,有相当的能力,才可能对瞬息万变的情况做出对自己有利的相应的对策。而能力是不以这个官员是否有着最高的伦理道德标准为转移的,这里可以引用像Clinton那样的例子,我就不赘述了。除此之外,还应紧扣对于effective leader所做出的定义,证明官员的能力是最基本的。如何证明?我想很根本的就是,如果没有能力,根本就上不了leader这样的位置,如果没有能力,也不可能坐稳这样的位置,如果没有能力,那连个像样的决定都做不出来,更别说后面的执行和结果了。

TS2:除了官员的能力,一个effective所必需的就是能处理好与下属的关系。

这里应该紧接上面一段的定义,表明属下会很好的帮leader完成工作要求的就是好的interrelationship。这段重点应该落于下属对于effective的重要性。其实下属听命于leader,这件事情本身就是一种effective的表现。另外就是要证明现在的各种各样的工作,都不是靠一个人就能解决的,那一个人提供的一般是inspiration,而成功还需要的aspiration就要靠那一个人下面的一帮人了。而且,人的inspiration并不是总是对的,不管他有多牛,所以跟下属的良好的关系也能让下属更好地对leader的判断决定提出应该有的建议。

TS3:尽管不是最重要的,伦理道德标准对于一个effective的leader也是重要的。

这里大概就不难说了,毕竟缺乏这个东西,在民主的社会应该是不怎么可能在leader的位置呆着的,在现在铺天盖地的mass media和各种各样的censorship中。

上述的只是某些写作方法,希望能看到大家有更多好的习作,独特的见解和写作的方法。


四、题目讨论

Pewcg8的一些分析:

首先应该对领导者进行定义,作为公共机构,不论是政府,公司,还是学术机构,他们的职责是代表其他机构成员,按照机构的章程,完成他们的职务.按理说,衡量他们是否杰出,应该只考虑他们的政绩,但是,由于公共机构在社会的不同地位,他们还要担负起工作以外的职责,公众的领导应该注意其公众的形象,对于不同的部门,他们都应该在公众中树立一个公认的良好形象,特别是政府单位,政府部门的领导应该树立廉洁,公正,正直等等形象,学术部门的领导应该树立勤奋,谦虚等形象,商业部门的领导应该树立起竞争向上等形象.这些都是高尚的道德情操的一部分,当然人无完人,但是这些公众的领导必须在总体上符合道德标准的大部分要求.政绩是一部分,但是公众的影响应该被放在首位,那些工作能力强的但是有些须缺陷的人可以作为领导的助手......


Itsway的一些分析:

下面是华盛顿的例子 写的时候提炼出自己想要的证据. 从中既可以找到支持题目观点的证据 更可以找到反对它的证据.
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Thanks to this experience, his military bearing, his dramatic charisma, and his political base in Virginia (the largest colony), Congress chose him as commander in chief of the American forces during the Revolutionary War... After the peace was achieved in 1783, he returned to civilian life, an exemplar of the republican ideal of citizen leadership. Alarmed at the weaknesses of the new nation, he presided over the Constitutional Convention that drafted the United States Constitution in 1787 and, in 1789, was the unanimous choice to become the first President of the United States.His two-term administration set many policies and traditions that survive today. In particular he supported Alexander Hamilton's plans to fund the national debt, set up a tax system, and create a national bank. When rebels in Pennsylvania defied Federal authority, he rode at the head of the army to quiet the rebellion. He set the norm that no president should serve more than two terms, retiring to his Virginia plantation in 1797. His Farewell address was a primer regarding republican virtue and a warning against involvement in European wars. As the symbol of republicanism he embodied American values and across the world was seen as the symbol of the new nation. Scholars rank him among the three greatest presidents.
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不难看出 对于华盛顿的伟大之处 强调更多的是他的杰出的领导能力和卓越的眼光.
特别是留给后来的美国两个伟大的制度 税务制度和总统任期. 而总统任期的限制
正好说明 无论一个领导如何伟大  都不能超越制度,反过来 建立完善的制度比挑选
一个圣人来做领导 要更加重要.

从这里 就可以引出第二个分论点.没有最高道德水准的人是否能成为合格的领导呢?
克林顿就是很好的例子. 他不是一个好父亲 好丈夫; 但绝对是一位好总统.他的信息高速公路战略,大大刺激了美国高科技产业的发展 带动了美国经济的强劲发展。人民受益很多

因此即便他身陷丑闻 依然有很高的支持率. 另一方面 他的道德问题没有引起社会伦理的恐慌和倒退,相反让人们更加坚信美国的制度是优越的.依靠完善的法制和民主制度以及强大的舆论监督 尽管领导有道德上的缺陷 也能将他们的个人错误对国家的影响减到最小.


nmwltm的一些分析:

杰出领导的定义:杰出领导就是那些能够领导他所代表的群体[政党,国家,社会]成功获得他们所需要的利益的人。从定义我们就可以清楚的了解到,对于杰出领导最强调的前提就是决策能力已及领导能力而不是伦理道德标准----因为这才是谋求利益的必要能力。那些只有伦理道德而没有这些能力的人是不可能成为领导的。比如,老好人就不能成为领导,太多太多的例子。同时,反面的,那些没有伦理道德但有很好的领导才能的人却有可能成为领导。举例??可另吨 西特了 而且,在一些特定的场合,为了代表自己领导的群体,一些领导人还需要在这时降低伦理道德的标准来成为一个好的领导。举例:为了政党生存为了政党成员的利益,领导者可能必须欺骗民众以赢得信任,窃取竞争者的情报以打击对手,又或者贿赂高层以换取支持。再者,值得一提的是,上升到哲学领域来说的话,对于一些人,比如按照后现代主义的说法,postmodernist伦理道德的标准也不是唯一[统一的]的。因此,我们就很难说伦理道德标准是成为杰出领导的前提。
为何高的道德标准是重要要求之一。
但是,不论在任何社会,任何时期,不论利益冲突多么的尖锐,人们似乎都在追求这一种永恒的美好-----这就是最高的伦理道德的追求。领导者作为一个站在大多数人前面的的人,往往更加是被人们在这上面寄予了更大的期望the more the more。通常,只有那些伦理道德标准高的人才更容易得到人们的尊敬,从而成为领导,并坐稳领导位子。而那些没有什么伦理道德的人,则往往被人抛弃,不能成为领导。当然,[让步 ]那些没有什么伦理道德的人有时也可以通过非道德的手段得到领导位置。但是,长远看来,这些过度不讲伦理道德的人最终都会因为这个而下台。希特勒
总之,经管伦理道德不是成为杰出领导的先决条件,它任染是值得我们提倡的一个重要要求。


Gteryy的一些分析:
如同军事上不是有“空城计”吗?其他经济等方面一定也有类似的策略,说白了说难听了就是欺骗。那么,如果说一个LEADER为了保持正直、诚实,而想他的竞争对手透露实际情况——弱点,或者对弱点不做隐瞒和修饰,那么一定会给国家或者企业带来损失,进而被人民赶下台?


五、相关素材

1、此贴的第二个分析对本题比较适用,请同学们自己好好阅读后去寻找积累自己的素材例子库
http://bbs.gter.net/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=959513&highlight=


2、Character in leadership and management

How much monkey business can we tolerate in a leader?
What is the connection between leadership and personal character?
Can a political leader with a disreputable character govern wisely?
Can a leader be a cad and still be a leader?
  
Some not so nice people still do good work - think of badly behaved artists.
Some people are so dedicated to their work they neglect interpersonal relations.
We still admire great art or music even if the artist is a disreputable character.
An unethical political leader could, similarly, do a good job of governing a country.
It is possible to separate your personal life from your work
And having personal problems need not prevent you from governing wisely.

Leadership and morality

But we expect our leaders to set a moral example for us, unlike artists.
A leader who sets a poor example, therefore, is hardly a leader.
The leader of a country must uphold the moral standards of its citizens.

Leadership and character

Political leaders are often charismatic, socially skilled and attractive.
We like leaders with these traits but having them does not make them good administrators.
Such leaders naturally focus on more exciting activities.
Conversely, less attractive people may have the skills needed to be good administrators.
We get the leaders we ask for by voting for the more charismatic types.
Then we expect them to turn off their natural characteristics and be good administrators.
We should elect leaders for their demonstrated results and management skills.

Leadership in an age of anxiety

Must our top political leaders be saints?
Anxiety causes us to yearn for certainties to give us a sense of security.
Our fears: society is disintegrating, the family is falling apart and things are changing too fast.
Hence, we want leaders who are, virtually, saint-like in the moral example they set.
We want an anchor in a sea of change - to help us reduce our anxiety.
Hence, immoral acts cannot be excused on the basis of being merely human.
Powerful people are always bombarded with less than moral temptations.
A leader must set an example that at least the majority of his or her followers admire.
Action that shows disdain for social or family values, in some cultures, is therefore not leadership.
In a strongly Catholic country, a leader can't advocate contraception or abortion.
In other cultures, promiscious behaviour may be OK with the majority if the leader does a good job.
In an Islamic fundamentalist country, a leader must exhibit Islamic fundamentalist values.
In a very pluralistic society, no leader will please everyone - some will want a leader who has an outstanding moral character, others will not be so concerned as long as the leader is delivering the results they expect.
Are there perhaps no universal character traits or values applicable to all political leaders?

Some universally important traits, moral and otherwise, might be as follows:

trustworthiness - keeping your word, being honest.
delivering on promises - like being trustworthy, you deliver what you promise.
treating people with respect and fairness.
not deliberately harming others.
dedication to improving the lot of those you represent.
management skills - the ability to get things done efficiently.
strong influence skills
the ability to convey a compelling vision of the future.
Many religious values and attitudes towards sexual matters would vary too much from one society to another to be considered universal.

http://www.leadersdirect.com/character.html


3、由scortio写成的一篇好文,其文笔和行文流畅度是非常好的,但是在思路上却是存在一定的偏差,大家在读的同时去想一下自己要如何去做,在这里贴出此文实在是因为我欣赏其笔墨:

Everyone would hope to have flawless leaders: ambitious, aggressive, capable, honest, merciful, kind and most importantly, morally pristine. Such saints, unfortunately, only exist on screens. Most of the public leaders, no matter how perfect they seem to be, are actually the same people as you and me. Unsurprisingly, more or less they have shortcomings like we do, maybe avarice, maybe laziness. But these do not prevent them from being outstanding leaders. Why? That is because being an effective leader calls more than mere high ethics and morality.

Doubtlessly those who corrupt morally cannot be qualified public officials. The emblem of a public institution, a public official is no longer looked upon as an individual. Every words and every activity from the official, no matter how trifle it is, will be taken by the public as from the institution as a whole. Even private image of a public official is shadowed by his/her public figure. Consequently, the public will treat any indecent behavior from individual public official as the scandal of the overall institution. Just imagine, will we be able to sustain the confidence in justice if the judge himself is revealed to have violated law? It is much easier to diminish the good reputation of the public institution than to build it. An individual moral failure is enough for the former whereas the latter may need the effort of generations. To represent the institution and to be the paragon to the public, therefore, every public official should maintain decent ethical and moral standards.

Yet an effective public leader takes much more than mere ethics and morality, however high they may be. The main task of public officials is to make their institution function smoothly and efficiently in the cooperation of the whole society. One who has nothing but high ethical standards can hardly meet the requisition of the challenging work. Such prerequisite as resolution, strong personality, aggressiveness, eloquence, capability and leadership are all inevitable traits of a successful public official. Though as pointed out above that they should maintain high moral standard, it is unreasonable to oblige that they must stand at the highest stage. There might be several leader who are both capable and holding significant ethical level. Yet the growing society is in expanding demand of public officials, which cannot be satisfied if the dual-threshold is set so rigid that most candidates will be declined.

In fact, sometimes trifle deficiencies are not lethal drawbacks for an capable person to be an effective leader. As long as he/she is aware of his/her flaws and confess their existence, the public will not fuss over whether he/she will be eligible or not. If the official is able to show his/her talent of leadership and on the other hand, keep improving him/herself, the public will be impressed and gain confidence on him/her and the institution as well. Knowing that the brilliant leader also has something not so perfect even can draw the public closer to the official emotionally. Getting inspired by the public leader, the advocates will also try to upgrade themselves morally. Ironically, too flawless a leader might get admiration, yet the public may get frustrated when trying to imitate, in that they find it almost impossible.

Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy… We can present a long list of greatest public leaders. Yet it might be reduced to no more than one digit figure if we ruled out those who cannot meet the highest ethical and moral standard. Their successful leaderships are not tarnished by their flaws anyway and their names will be remembered by generations for what they have done to our society.


4、POOH百宝箱政治类之二—Leaders, Politics and Morality
MORALITY AND POLITICS
IN A CHANGING WORLD
VASSIL PRODANOV
_______________________________________________

Every crucial social change alters the essence of the activities in the different social spheres, and is manifested in new interconnections between those spheres. The changes in Eastern Europe and the global processes of democratization in the contemporary world lead, firstly, to alterations in the concept of morality and politics. For when, in both spheres, there begin to prevail elements which are common to all mankind, new elements appear in values and their regulation. Secondly, they lead to changes in the structure of the interrelations between politics and morality, and vice versa. All this revives the ancient problem of the relation between morality and politics.

Both morality and politics serve to regulate or direct human behavior. They differ, however, in the strength of their regulation and demand different, though related, personal qualities. Groups, classes and separate persons are interrelated morally. Depending on the concrete historical political peculiarities of this interrelation, some moral qualities of a politician can be easily developed, while others, which concretely and historically conflict with his policy and political goals, could cease to develop and become rudimentary and opposite qualities.

As a regulator, morality is directed towards the other: it concerns interpersonal relations and interrelations between the person and group. In contrast to morality, politics regulates mainly relations between the groups and the state and between the different socio-political organizations; directly or indirectly these are connected with the function of state power.
Therefore, the boundaries between the spheres of morality and politics are very flexible. In some periods particular relations can be regulated by moral mechanisms, which in other periods are ruled by political ones. The interaction between those mechanisms depends on the particular social contradictions and the objective possibilities of achieving class, national and state goals by acting in accordance with, or neglecting, respective moral values and norms.

THE SUBORDINATION OF MORALITY
TO POLITICS AND VICE VERSA

The mutual subordination between morality and politics depends upon additional factors as well. The deeper the contradictions between persons, classes and nations the more real the possibilities of separation, contradiction and conflict between morality and politics. In such a situation the health and life, as well as the satisfaction of the ordinary needs of single persons, easily could be neglected in the pursuit of political goals. The main mechanism of the contradictions between morality and politics are the politization of morality and the moralization of politics. The moralization of politics consists in disregarding the specific character of the political sphere and the tendency to use morality to explain political goals and to solve political problems although this remains objectively impossible for a given historical stage or definite social group. The politization of morality consists in the introduction of political principles and criteria for the regulation of the relations between persons and between groups and persons through a replacement of morality by politics. In spheres where morality should have a relatively independent role, it is identified with politics or its influence is restricted to situations in which there is no danger that it can conflict with politics. Such a politization is characteristic of periods of revolution and great social clashes where the individual person faces the need to join actively in the life-and-death struggle for the defence of the global interests of the class and the nation.

When political theory, ideology and practice come into sharp contradiction with the morality of the people, they lose their efficacy and in the end are doomed to failure. Therefore, every political theory, ideology and practice seeks moral justification and arguments in order to be accepted by the masses. But when political theory contradicts to some degree the morality of people or masses, then politicians seek to camouflage this contradiction with political demagogy. The higher the stage at which the politics of a definite organization, party or state contradicts the moral values of the people, the stronger the need for demagogy and the greater the use of different means of propaganda for this purpose.

The moral feelings of the popular masses are the most direct early indicators of whether the actions of the political system are justified. That most people begin to accept certain political actions and organizations as discordant with their moral feelings indicates an emerging crisis in the society. A political system which takes morality into consideration does not in principle go beyond certain moral boundaries. Moreover, through its functioning the system it strengthens those bounds and forms appropriate moral qualities in the persons. All this means that political and moral goals, means and actions can contradict one another only within certain bounds; if those are trespassed the political system is threatened by instability and failure.

No socially important action is without a positive or negative moral dimension. All political actions are carried out by persons and concern relations between persons. Relations between separate persons in the political sphere are based on a certain moral code which is produced spontaneously in political practice. This can also be made public officially and serve as one of the bases for evaluating politicians on behalf of the populace as well as on behalf of the different political institutions, units and representatives of the political hierarchy. Depending on the peculiarities of the political goals, means and practices of a certain group or organization, the moral code which influences the behaviour of the politicians will correspond to or contradict in some degree their moral demands.


The Power of Character
___________________

Nobody is utterly good or bad. This is a crucial fact to keep in mind when we try to depict a person’s overall character. We are, each of us, a complex set of selves, integrated — more or less — into a whole. Yet the whole is all but impossible to evaluate. So we look at the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. and we are likely to judge him highly based on the power of his prophetic ministry despite evidence of tawdry morality in his personal life. We look at — oh, say Adolph Hitler — and, judge him as evil because we know of his murderous hatefulness that led to the deaths of millions. We do not much care whether he carried candy in his pockets to give to children, as some of his biographers claim.

When we make moral evaluations of famous people we often focus on a single dimension of their character. For our evaluations of the famous are often not meant to be thorough moral profiles but teaching tools. We tend to single out the traits we want to avoid or emulate. So we use George Washington as a man too complicated to be categorized.

The Moral Character of Political Leaders

Discussion of the private morality of our political leaders reached new heights during the Presidency of Bill Clinton. Highly publicized accusations that he had a long-term adulterous affair with Gennifer Flowers and that he sexually harassed Paula Jones in his years as Governor of Arkansas were capped by an intensive investigation of charges that, as President, he had an improper sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky, a White House intern. With all the righteous indignation one would think he was the first President to be charged with improper sexual conduct. Yet even a cursory review of the private lives of past Presidents reveals substantial evidence that Franklin Roosevelt, Dwight Eisenhower, Lyndon Johnson and John Kennedy had extramarital affairs. Thomas Jefferson, many believe, fathered children by one of his slaves. And Grover Cleveland confessed to having an illegitimate child.

Much of the press and most of Mr. Clinton’s most ardent detractors expressed amazement that through the worst of the Monica Lewinsky charges, he maintained extraordinarily high approval ratings for the job he was doing as President. Yet it may be quite sensible to look at President Clinton and his predecessors— or for that matter, any people currently in public life — and distinguish between their public selves and their private selves, evaluating each independently. Our willingness to make this sort of private-public distinction affects more than presidents. It affects the very language we use to describe which public figures are morally good and which people are not. It goes, really, to our deepest understanding of the existence and nature of the private sphere — the sphere into which, in the best American tradition, one simply does not pry.

The wall between public and private is an important one to maintain even if it means we will sometimes ignore personal traits or conduct that could well diminish our opinion of the overall person. We should maintain this wall not to protect public figures from the judgments that might naturally flow from their conduct but because we should prize and protect the idea of privacy. Privacy, after all, is vital to our essence. It comes with our humanity that we are entitled to a region where we can freely think, speak, and behave with confidence that we are, for that instant, on our own. This is not to deny the importance of norms of conduct in holding the community together. Norms are crucial. Community is crucial. The links we form to others are crucial. But so are spaces to be ourselves. Moreover, a life without privacy would be psychologically intolerable.

Politicans Are Not And Should Not Be Moral Leaders

I think it is very naive, not to mention inappropriate, to look to politicians for moral leadership. Why do I say that? Well it is very simple when you think about it. Living by a cut and dry (cut and dry = routine) , universal standard of principles is simply NOT feasible, but it may also render him or her completely ineffective at their job. What is a politician’s job? Well I am glad you asked. A politician’s job is to build, maintain, and expand the wealth, prosperity and political influence of his nation, district, county, state or what have you.  This is his or her primary concern. Many more times than you and I would like to think, realizing those goals require them to make choices that are outside the bounds of morality. Moral leaders think in terms of a deontological approach to ethics and morals while the political leader thinks in terms of consequences or a utilitarian approaches to ethics and morality.

_______________________

Ethics & Leadership

by Ken Rushton, Director, Institute of Business Ethics

Barely a month goes by without another survey being published showing how the public distrusts business and its leaders. For example, a recent MORI survey shows: 58% of European consumers say industry does not pay enough attention to its social responsibilities. The figure for British consumers is 71% and only Finnish consumers are more critical of business. An earlier MORI survey in the UK showed that 40% of industry leaders agree and, interestingly, a similar percentage of investors.

What ethical conduct and socially responsible behaviour have in common is they both start from values and, when applied effectively, both enhance the company's reputation and so contribute to performance and shareholder value.
Embedding Values

Managements of most large businesses recognise the importance of values and they articulate their values in codes of conduct. But how many of them seek to embed their values and the ethical behaviour that should flow from them into their culture? How many seek to do this consistently across all their operations world-wide? How many simply produce their code of conduct, send it to their employees, stick it on the corporate website and say job well done?

The most important part of the implementation process is the example and leadership given by senior management. Directors and Managers who walk the talk and demonstrate their integrity. Managers who are not afraid to talk about values. They can talk about values in business performance terms: values as a source of competitive advantage; values that underpin corporate reputation and reinforce risk management; values that are part of the intangible assets of the business

Reputation Management

Company leaders are responsible for reputation management. They need to be inspiring role models of values-based leadership. Such leadership is more likely to result in employees giving the company their loyalty and superior performance. Employees want to feel proud of the company they work for as well as comfortable with its culture and values.

Increasingly, in knowledge based industries, the distinctive competitive factor will be the ability to attract and retain the most talented people. There is a need to establish an organisation culture (values, beliefs, behaviour) which gives each employee the opportunity to obtain personal fulfilment. A fulfilled employee is one more likely to give outstanding performance. Employees are individuals with differing physical, mental and emotional needs so they need to be treated as individuals. Above all, a company that wants to create an organisation culture in which employees are more likely to find fulfilment must define its values and embed them in its lifeblood. It must then, of course, live up to those values. The requirement for CEOs therefore is to establish a corporate culture which encourages responsible behaviour while releasing the creative potential of the workforce.

Sustainable Development

How do companies, particularly large companies, go about building their reputations and earning trust? Modern managers need not only to be able to talk about values in business performance terms but they must be able to consider values and ethics in strategic terms. The concept that enables them to do this is sustainability or sustainable development. The modern multinational will include sustainability in its strategic plan, and will have a coherent corporate responsibility strategy based on sound ethics and shared values which will deliver clear business benefits - not least an improvement to its reputation. Good business and sustainable development go hand in hand.

In every business, including small businesses and dot.coms, a focus on traditional ethical values will not only provide some stability and consistency, in the face of a world of accelerating change, but will also enable those businesses to command greater trust from their stakeholders and to become more successful.

A business that doesn't invest in building trust will, over time, be rejected by the markets, by investors, by its customers and above all by its own people - its employees.




在版面发完习作之后,来本贴发布一下自己的习作链接

不允许先占楼再发链接

凡在此帖参加同主题的版友,习作贴的统一格式为:
0910AW 同主题写作第十二期 ISSUE43 by xxx

本贴互改顺序为:前一个改后一个(只包括作业链接楼层)

另外,改完后请在本贴里给你所改的习作的作者加分通知,一来让TA知道习作已被修改,二来方便统计。

针对于第一个参与的同学没有人改,将由一名版主去改

其余链接 大家互改

P.S.慎重发帖 发帖之前请参看http://bbs.gter.net/thread-962761-1-2.html

家家☆yoonjae 发表于 2009-7-26 20:44:55

本帖最后由 家家☆yoonjae 于 2009-7-26 20:59 编辑

SF~~~

http://bbs.gter.net/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=988732&extra=

swif 发表于 2009-7-31 11:21:47

辛苦了:)

http://bbs.gter.net/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=990574&page=1&extra=#pid1773028182

iloveusa2009 发表于 2009-8-6 02:48:51

http://bbs.gter.net/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=992725&extra=

chloelin 发表于 2009-8-6 22:50:15

http://bbs.gter.net/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=993084&page=1&extra=#pid1773048384
谢谢修改

Divine 发表于 2009-8-7 15:03:09

谢谢楼上
http://bbs.gter.net/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=992595&page=1#pid1773044886

flyoverroses 发表于 2009-8-13 12:58:59

6# Divine

http://bbs.gter.net/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=995525&page=1&extra=#pid1773067171

谢谢楼上啦~~

尾羽 发表于 2009-8-13 13:31:38

http://bbs.gter.net/bbs/thread-993467-1-1.html
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