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发表于 2014-10-12 20:34:37
本帖最后由 tesolchina 于 2015-5-25 07:13 编辑 |
OG中提到要有insightful的分析和论证，我个人的经验是，在讨论issue的时候，需要引用一些题目中未提及但是能帮助我们思考的概念作为工具。以89题为例，我运用的是法律的经济学分析中的经典理论- incentive theory。当然这样说有点装，其实曼昆总结的十大经济学原理的其中一条就是人会回应激励。由此可见，要想在issue写作中构建一个内容丰富、令人信服的论证，必须借助我们平时积累的知识。
写提纲的时候一定要想清楚每个点如何展开 包括用什么例子 因为很多想法好像很好 但是一旦写起来才发现不行 就是因为例子不合适 或者表达不清楚 所以通常我们写的提纲在实际操作中都会出问题 其实一个真正想明白了的提纲是不会那么容易忘记的 这里面涉及到干货
就拿前天有同学考到的 issue 38来说
It is primarily through our identification with social groups that we define ourselves.
Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.
For all human beings, identity is a complex and perplexing issue. Some argues that, to answer the question “Who am I?”, we have to identify with different social groups. While I agree that we need to participate in different social communities in order to construct our identities, interacting with our parents, partners and children in private relationships is also an essential aspect of our identities.
One important identity marker is our nationality or citizenship. Although our nationality was determined at the time we were born, we have to participate in a number of specific social activities in order to express our identities as a citizen of a particular nation. One obvious thing is to speak the national language shared by all the people from that nation. Through speaking the language fluently and write in that language competently we immediately identify ourselves with all the other fellow citizens of the nation. In addition, we also support the Constitution of our nation and participate in the democratic processes such as electing the president and the Congressmen. Such political acts we engaged in with other fellow citizens also define us as a member of the nation.
首先就是social group这个概念具体化为nation 这是写这道题的基础 没有这个具体化 这道题根本没法写下去
其次我们要将identification with social groups操作化 就是这个identify with的具体内涵是什么 怎么做到 基于前面的nation as a social group
我们很自然地想到 speak national language, support Constitution, participate in democratic processes这类更具体的行动
Claim: Governments must ensure that their major cities receive the financial support they need in order to thrive.
Reason: It is primarily in cities that a nation's cultural traditions are preserved and generated.
Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim and the reason on which that claim is based.
Due to the development of modern technology, many people are concerned about how to preserve their nations’ cultural traditions and promote their national identities for the new generations who have been exposed to globalised culture with little local flavour. Since government resources are limited, it is argued that major cities should be the top priority for financial support because the cultural traditions are generated and preserved here. While I agree that major cities are important for preserving and generating cultural tradition, other areas are equally important in many countries. Since cultural programs in major cities can receive support from different financial sources such as advertising, donation of city residents and big corporations, government money should be invested to programs in small towns and rural regions where resources from private sectors are not available.
There is no doubt that major cities are important sites for celebrating cultural traditions. Take the well-known Statue of Liberty in New York City as an example. This giant copper statue was a gift of France to the US and has become a popular icon for freedom and democracy inspiring people all over the world. In late 19th century and early 20th century, Statue of Liberty had welcomed nearly 14 million immigrants who entered the United States through New York. For these immigrants and their descendants, the Statue of Liberty was a symbol of hope and freedom. For the rest of the United States, the Statue of Liberty celebrates diversity and tolerance, the core values that define the cultural tradition of a young republic.
Despite the importance of major cities for cultural traditions, government funding should not be heavily invested here because there are other funding sources available. The national park service that manages the Statue of Liberty in New York, for example, receive financial support in the form of admission ticket fares from thousands of tourists who come to visit everyday from all over the world. Major corporations and private citizens also donated large amount of money to the private foundation built for the Statue of Liberty. In addition, the cultural heritage site also attracts thousands of volunteers every year to donate their time to the daily operation of national park services for the Statue of Liberty. Therefore, as this example adequately illustrates, cultural traditions in major cities are not the top priorities for government funding given all the alternative sources for funding and support.