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[经验思考] issue入门系列之一:认真审题、按照题目要求立论 [复制链接]

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寄托兑换店纪念章 US-applicant

发表于 2015-4-14 23:33:07 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 tesolchina 于 2015-10-1 22:00 编辑

今年元月写的argument入门系列颇受欢迎,这几天写一下issue的入门。很多同学头疼issue,最大的困难在于没法写到一定的字数。其实字数真的不能强求,不是说写到一定字数就能拿高分,事实上,有网友曾经写得很少,但是在考场上花了很多时间修改,反而拿到4分。所以,不要强求字数。

请致函ETS要求公开issue和argument具体分数

issue要入门首先要认真读题,把题目彻底读懂。很多同学不认真读题,发习作上论坛的时候都不抄题。我每次批改版友的作文时都会对照着看下题目,所以对于不抄题目的行为十分不满。新G的作文时间很短,加上字数的压力,导致部分同学写的时候不认真读题,结果很悲剧。

如何做到认真审题?首先要避免误读。今天才看到一篇习作,写的是issue 58
Issue 58 Learning is primarily a matter of personal discipline; students cannot be motivated by school or college alone.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.

这道题比较特别,前后两句话用分号隔开,是什么意思呢?前一句说学习主要是一件关乎个人自律的事情,后一句说仅仅靠学校、大学不能激励学生。一般可理解为后一句是前一句的某种推论或impllication,这两句话可以当成一个整体来讨论。我们可以看看这位同学怎么写的

In my opinion, whether or not students should be motivated by educational institution as learning is a matter of personal discipline is mainly depended on what kind of those educational institution they attend. For students learning in vocational school, it is unnecessary for school to do anything for encouraging students in learning, as the students have already known their professional orientation before enrollment.

一看开头我就断定这篇文章废掉了。因为作者将cannot误读为should not 而紧接着的unnecessary也是顺着这个思路去写的,这就是对题目的大大的误解。因为should是一个价值判断的问题,应该与否关乎我们的三观,是一个所谓的normative satement,而能不能做某件事则是一个客观的positive (testable) statement。学过经济学的同学都会明白这两者之间的区别。这道题分明是在讨论学校能否激励学生,而前面说学习是关乎自律的事情是后一句的某种依据和前提,因此这里的关键是学校是否有机会、有资源去激励学生,而不是应不应该的问题。

这里要强调的是issue的题干里每个词都需要我们在下笔之前仔细推敲,探明整个的意思。避免误读题目实在是写好issue或者不写砸issue的第一步。

在不误读的基础上,还要学会抓住题干中的关键词,所谓抓住不仅仅是认识到这是关键词,而是要在整篇文章里反复去回应这个关键词。这里以issue 1为例。

As people rely more and more on technology to solve problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.

这道科技类的题目相对是比较好写的,但是部分同学在写的时候没能紧扣题干里的关键词。这道题的关键在于abitlity to think for themselves。而事实上think这个概念是很难写的,我们都知道think是什么意思,但是要说清楚think是怎么一回事却很难,因为这是个相对抽象的概念。比如某同学写的中间段

In research field, thinking is the key of achievement, and actually the existence of many kinds of physical axioms and outstanding speculation have already prove that. The path of thinking out is not smooth, but more thorny. In the process, massive expected and unexpected problems keep testing thinkers’ ability, as well as their patience. By that time, it is better to rely on production of technology release the pressure outside, leading no harm to ability, but assistance to process of thinking. According to that, the ability of thinking scientist possess can be utilized maximized, bringing to scientist the outstanding discovery that they expected, or are even surprised with.

整段其实也多次提到了thinking 但是读完之后还是不知道在说啥 一方面是表达的问题,更重要的是对于thinking这个概念没有具体讨论

这里推荐大家看下我的博客219楼的范文-http://bbs.gter.net/forum.php?mo ... ge=15#pid1779234589  

这里摘录中间第一段

Consider the scientists and engineers who are responsible for developing the theoretical and practical aspects of the new technologies. It is true that they also rely on technologies to solve their problems in research and product developements. But they also rely on their own thinking abilities to solve problems in their works. 这两句作为本段的开头分别回应了题干中的rely more and more on technology to solve problems以及 the ability of humans to think for themselves

For example, software engineers of mobile apps rely on the mobile programming platforms to develop the apps as the platform can help the engineers to visualize the user interface of the apps.  The computers they use can also collect and analyze the user data for the software engineers to better understand how the users behave in response to different app design decisions.
接下来这部分重点解释It is true that they also rely on technologies to solve their problems in research and product developements.

But ultimately, no computer softwares can replace the engineers in solving the key problems such as how to attract more users and how to improve the quality of user experiences. If the engineers are to improve the mobile apps, they still have to think by themselves to decide how to improve the design by taking into account the data provided by different tools.
而接下来这部分则是回应But they also rely on their own thinking abilities to solve problems in their works.
注意我这里讲think for themselves放到一个很具体额度语境中去演绎

Likewise, the computer scientists are challenged to optimize the algorithms used in different programs to reduce the time required to run the programs. Sophisticated computer programs such as Matlab can help the scientists to simulate different algorithms and get data on their computational performance. But the computer scientists have to think by themselves to tweet the mathetical models and develop more efficient algorithms.  

最后这部分新加了一个相关的例子  同意很具体的进行讨论。

为什么举例说明这么重要,就在于通过例子,我们可以把一些本来很抽象不易说清楚的概念很实在、具体的讨论。我们不知道怎么说清楚思考这件事,但是在软件开发和设计中思考就是去想办法吸引用户、提升用户体验。这样文章就好写很多了。

关于题目的要求或者写作指引也是新G和老G很不同的一点。issue的6种指引,我在博客55楼已经分类讨论,这里不赘述- http://bbs.gter.net/forum.php?mo ... age=4#pid1778934728  
其实issue的题库我在14年11-12月已经和版友语音讨论过,全部都有提纲,目录在博客的二楼。建议自己审题经验不足的同学可以看看。

接下来还会写以下几个帖子,主要内容会在博客相关楼层内容的基础上展开讨论。

- issue入门系列之二:1+3模型构建复杂而整合的思路 (25、54楼)
- issue入门系列之三:分情况讨论-issue立论必杀技   (51楼)
- issue入门系列之四:中间段的提出例子和解释例子  (27、82楼)
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寄托兑换店纪念章

发表于 2015-4-20 21:14:29 |显示全部楼层
谢谢分享,学习啦啦啦

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发表于 2015-4-21 01:24:53 |显示全部楼层
禿推推推推

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发表于 2015-4-21 12:50:21 |显示全部楼层
谢谢你的分享

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发表于 2015-4-21 22:09:18 |显示全部楼层
感谢分享啦~楼主辛苦了

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寄托兑换店纪念章 美版2016offer达人 2016 US-applicant

发表于 2015-4-22 12:04:49 |显示全部楼层

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发表于 2015-4-22 23:31:24 |显示全部楼层
多谢多谢!!!

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发表于 2015-4-23 09:51:47 |显示全部楼层
thx a lot

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美版2016offer达人

发表于 2015-4-23 18:38:16 |显示全部楼层
占楼学习!!!!

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发表于 2015-4-24 17:13:04 |显示全部楼层
谢谢lz,正愁issue呢

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美版2016offer达人

发表于 2015-4-24 21:01:07 |显示全部楼层
来看看

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发表于 2015-4-24 21:09:36 来自手机 |显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主分享,正在捉急写作中

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发表于 2015-4-26 17:20:48 |显示全部楼层
受教

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发表于 2015-4-27 04:23:01 |显示全部楼层
thx~~

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发表于 2015-4-27 08:24:27 |显示全部楼层

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