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[GRE单项资料] NO4-8详细真题解析(阅读部分) [复制链接]

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发表于 2009-3-1 23:28:08 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 grekokomo 于 2009-4-5 23:47 编辑

  克服多种困难,终于赶在4月初完成这个工程。

  感谢寄托天下提供一个交流的平台,才会有这么多人能够认识交流,参与这个工程;

  感谢花儿的《GRE阅读39+3全攻略》,为我们这些对阅读毫无头绪的人指出一条正确的道路;

  感谢文以载道二月笔试小组的全体同胞,没有你们完不成这个工程;

  特别感谢zhtwd、MVT、skyshylin、gdreamer9、Genev、Aileen08、风潇子参与编辑工作,其中有一些还属于在职的同胞,牺牲大量的时间完成这个工程;

  感谢草木也知愁把资料整理成PDF文件~~!


  引用下综合版前首席版主Demo的话:
No.9是ETS题目改革的实验品, 可以不花太多时间. 前面其实还有No.1-3, 由于太久远参考价值也不大.

  因为时间关系,加上其它部分NO题参考意义不是很大,我们只分析了NO4~8部分的阅读。

  值得一说的是,由于我们的精力和水平问题,有一些讲解可能会存在一些问题,这个工程还需要一个校订的工作,只能等6G结束后找几位高手一起来逐一校订每个题目。恩,有意向参与校订工作的高手请联系我,6G结束后我们再完善这份资料

请注意:

1.并非所有题目的讲解都正确(这个和我们自身水平有关,我本想和三月、四月小组的同学一起完善讲解的,可惜精力有限,请见谅~~!如果版友们发现有什么错误,请把问题整理好之后再本帖提出~~!)
2.并非所有的讲解都参考了花儿NO笔记(由于时间关系,可能我们的几位编辑者没有去查阅花儿NO笔记,所以,我也给出了花儿NO笔记电子书,请大家结合着看)
3.并非所有题目都讨论过(在我们进行阅读突破的后半部分,由于大家都很疲惫,最后只针对有疑问的题目集中讨论,这也就不可避免的导致没有讨论的题目是编辑者自己给出的答案,可能会存在错误)
4.个别题目一直存在争论

*******************************(分割线)**********************************

有争议的题目:
NO4-1:
SECTION2: 26(答案BC如何排除?)
SECTION5: 22(完全不懂)

NO4-3:
SECTION1: 26(ABCDE都有不同意见)
SECTION2: 19(A如何排除?)、24(E如何排除?)


NO5-2:
SECTION1:23(2如何排除?)
SECTION2: 18

NO6-1:
SECTION1:25
SECTION4:
24、26、27

NO6-2:
SECTION1:19

********************************(分割线)*********************************


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AW活动特殊奖 AW小组活动奖 枫情万种 一帆枫顺

发表于 2009-3-2 21:06:28 |显示全部楼层
请注明寄托,文以载道一月笔试复习小组
corpuscle 发表于 2009-3-1 23:28


到底是一月还是二月。。。
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既然是GRE,那么更是非杀不可

右键-》属性-》复制URL->新网页打

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荣誉版主 GRE守护之星 备考先锋 AW活动特殊奖

发表于 2009-3-2 23:17:29 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 grekokomo 于 2009-3-19 19:35 编辑

     NO4-1     by zhtwd   


By the time the American colonists took up arms

against Great Britain in order to secure their indepen-
dence, the institution of Black slavery was deeply
entrenched. But the contradiction inherent in this

TS. But

situation was, for many, a source of constant embar-

rassment. “It always appeared a most iniquitous

scheme to me,” Abigail Adams wrote her husband
AA

in 1774, “to fight ourselves for what we are daily

1774

robbing and plundering from those who have as
good a right to freedom as we have.”

Many Americans
besides Abigail Adams were

SE =

struck by the inconsistency of their stand during the
War of Independence, and they were not averse to
WI

making moves to emancipate the slaves. Quakers and

Q

other religious groups organized antislavery societies,
while numerous individuals manumitted their slaves.


=
(同时)
In fact, within several years of the end of the War of
WI

Independence, most of the Eastern states had made

SE

provisions for the gradual emancipation of slaves.

文章结构类型:全文论证一个观点型,SE均论述一个主题,没有出现howeverquestion之类的字眼。
TSBy the time the American colonists took up arms against Great Britain in order to secure their independence, the institution of Black slavery was deeply entrenched. But the contradiction inherent in this situation was, for many, a source of constant embarrassment.
单词:
阅读专用词汇:averse, contradiction, embarrassment, inconsistency, stand
积累专业词汇:War of Independence

当美洲殖民地民众拿起武器,抗击大英帝国,以获得其独立时,黑人奴隶制度早已根深蒂固。然则,对许多人而言,这一情形中所固有的矛盾始终构成了一种窘迫难堪之源。阿比盖尔·亚当斯(Abigail
Adams)在1774年致她丈夫的信函中写道:“在我看来,有一件事情总仿佛是一种最为邪恶不公的阴谋。这就是,我们所为之奋斗的,恰好就是我们每日从他人身上掠夺和抢劫的东西,而这些人却同我们一样,对自由享有同等充分的权利。”


除阿比盖尔·亚当斯之外,许多美洲殖民者也深深地意识到了他们在独立战争期间所持立场的矛盾,而他们变欣然采取步骤来解放奴隶。贵格会教徒们(Quakers)以及其它宗教团体组织起反奴隶制社团;与此同时,许多个人也着手将其奴隶予以释放。事实上,在独立战争宣告结束之后的几年时间内,绝大部分东部诸州早已制定法律条文以逐步解放黑奴。

17. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage? (主旨题)

(A) The War of Independence
produced among many Black Americans a heightened consciousness of the inequities in American society.
WI没有produce consciousness, 与原文不符)

(B) The War of Independence strengthened the bonds of slavery of many Black Americans while intensifying their desire to be free.
(无中生有)

(C) The War of Independence exposed to many Americans the contradiction of slavery in a country seeking its freedom and resulted in efforts to resolve that contradiction.
(原文2段首句的改写)

(D) The War of Independence provoked strong criticisms by many Americans of the institution of slavery,
but produced little substantive action against it.
(文章2段首句说了they were not averse to making moves to emancipate the slaves.选项中but后的内容与原文不符,故错)

(E) The War of Independence
renewed the efforts of many American groups toward achieving Black emancipation.
(没有内容说明是renew, 无中生有)

答案:(C

18. The passage contains information that would support which of the following statements about the colonies before the War of Independence? (细节题)

(A) They contained organized antislavery societies.
WI开始后Quakers and other religious groups organized antislavery societies.

(B) They allowed individuals to own slaves.
(在WI开始后numerous individuals manumitted their slaves.问题问before WI, 取非即可得此选项)

(C) They prohibited religious groups from political action.
(
无中生有)

(D) They were inconsistent in their
legal definitions of slave status.
(无中生有)

(E) They encouraged abolitionist societies to expand their influence.

(无中生有)

答案:(B

19. According to the passage, the War of Independence was embarrassing to some Americans for which of the following reasons? (罗马数字题)

I. It involved a struggle for many of the same liberties that Americans were denying to others.
1段末句的改写)
II. It involved a struggle for independence from the very nation that had founded the colonies.(不符合问题要求)
III. It involved a struggle based on inconsistencies in the participants’ conceptions of freedom.(误选了D,可能是把原文中的stand替换成了conceptions

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II only


(D) I and III only
(E) I, II, and III


答案:(A

20. Which of the following statements regarding American society in the years immediately following the War of Independence is best supported by the passage? (主旨题)

(A)The unexpected successes of the antislavery societies led to their gradual demise in the Eastern states.
(无中生有)

(B) Some of the newly independent American states had begun to make progress toward abolishing slavery.
(由文章2段和末句可得此选项)

(C) Americans like Abigail Adams became disillusioned with the
slow progress of emancipation and gradually abandoned the cause.
(并没有提到gradually abandoned the cause

(D) Emancipated slaves gradually were accepted in the Eastern states as equal members of American society.
(无中生有,可定位到文章末句)
(E) The abolition of slavery in many Eastern states was the result of close cooperation between religious groups and free Blacks.(无中生有)

答案:(B

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备考先锋

发表于 2009-3-4 14:59:04 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 grekokomo 于 2009-3-19 19:35 编辑

NO4-2 第二篇 BY  MVT



Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian                 
T
-, 旧观点
America was not a fluid, egalitarian society where
individual wealth and poverty were ephemeral condi-
tions. At least to argues E. Pessen in his iconoclastic           EP
study of the very rich in the United States between
1825 and 1850.                                                                    时间
Pessen does present a quantity of examples,

together with some refreshingly intelligible statistics,          +
to establish the existence of an inordinately wealthy           TS
class. Though active in commerce or the professions,             转折
most of the wealthy were not self-made, but had in-
herited family fortunes. In no sense mercurial, these
great fortunes survived the financial panics that de-
stroyed lesser ones. Indeed, in several cities the                     特征词
wealthiest one percent constantly increased its share
until by 1850 it owned half of the community’s wealth.          时间
Although these observations are true, Pessen over-
estimates their importance by concluding from them          TS-
that the undoubted progress toward inequality in the
late eighteenth century continued in the Jacksonian
period and that the United States was a class-ridden,
plutocratic society even before industrialization.

文章结构类型:推翻旧观点型,第二段中的though, although
TSAlthough these observations are true, Pessen overestimates their importance by concluding from them that the undoubted progress toward inequality in the late eighteenth century continued in the Jacksonian period and that the United States was a class-ridden, plutocratic society even before industrialization.
单词:
阅读专用词汇ephemeral, intelligible
积累专业词汇egalitarian, plutocratic

25. According to the passage, Pessen indicates that
all of the following were true of the very wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 EXCEPT:

NOT题)

(A) They formed a distinct upper class.
B2
第一句的改写
(B) Many of them were able to increase their holdings.
第二段最后一句
(C) Some of them worked as professionals or in business.

(D) Most of them accumulated their
own fortunes. (most of the wealthy were not self-made)

(E) Many of them retained their wealth in spite of financial upheavals.

答案:D

26. The author’s attitude toward Pessen’s presentation of statistics can be best described as(态度题)

(A) disapproving
(B) shocked

(C) suspicious
(D) amused
(E) laudatory
refreshingly
正态度
答案:E

27. Which of the following best states the author’s main point?
(主旨题)

(A) Pessen’s study has overturned the previously established view of the social and economic structure of early nineteenth century America.

(B) Tocqueville’s analysis of the United States in the Jacksonian era remains the definitive account of this period.

(C) Pessen’s study is valuable primarily because it shows the continuity of the social system in the United States throughout the nineteenth century.

(D) The social patterns and political power of the extremely wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 are well documented.

(E) Pessen challenges a view of the social and economic system in the United States from 1825 to 1850, but he draws conclusions that are incorrect.
答案:E

参考译文:
显然,托克维尔(Tocqueville)错了。杰克逊执政时期的美国(Jcaksonian
America)并不是一人流动易变的和平均主义的社会,个人的富有和贫困于其中仅是些
转瞬即逝的状况。至少,伊·佩森(E.Pessen)在其对18251850年间的美国巨富进
行的那项反传统的研究中是这么论述的。
  佩森确实列举出大量的实例,连同某些令人耳目一新的、明晰易懂的数据,从而确
定了某个极度富有阶层的存在。尽管绝大多数富豪活跃于商业或各项职业,但他们并非
是白手起家(self-made),而是继承了家庭财富。这些大笔的财富由于绝未被置于活跃
的流通之中,故得以经受住金融恐慌的打击而幸存下来,而较小规模的资本却被悉数摧
垮。事实上,在几个城市中,最富有的百分之一的人持续不断地增加其财富份额,直至。
1850年,这部分人拥了社会中一半的财富。尽管这些观察确凿无误,但佩森过高估计了
它们的重要性,因为他从中得出以下两个结论:其一是十八世纪后期不容置疑的贫富分
化在杰克逊时代仍在继续;其二是美国早在工业化之前已是一个充斥着阶级分化的、由
富豪统治的社会。
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发表于 2009-3-4 22:17:06 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 corpuscle 于 2009-3-19 19:35 编辑

NO4-3     by corpuscle
Great comic art is never otherworldly,
TS
+
it does not seek to mystify
  us, and it does not deny ambiguity by

  branding as evil whatever differs from


(5) good. Great comic artists assume that

SE

  truth may bear all lights, and thus they
  seek to accentuate contradictions in
标志词
social action, not gloss over or transcend
﹥﹤

them by appeals to extrasocial

(10) symbols of divine ends, cosmic purpose,
1
23
  or laws of nature. The moment of
SE

  transcendence in great comic art is a
  social moment, born out of the
  conviction that we are human, even
让步,强调we are human
(15) though we try to be gods. The comic
SE

  community to which artists address
  themselves is a community of reasoning,
1
23+
  loving, joyful, compassionate beings,
  who are willing to assume the human
(20) risks of acting rationally. Without
  invoking gods or demons, great comic
SE

  art arouses courage in reason, courage
  which grows out of trust in what human
  beings can do as humans.

文章结构类型:全文论证一个观点型,SE均论述一个主题,没有出现howeverquestion之类的字眼。
TSGreat comic art is never otherwordly, it does not seek to mystifyus, and it does not deny ambiguity bybranding as evil whatever differs from good.
态度:great, reasoning, loving, joyful, compassionate表明+态度
单词:
阅读专用词汇:ambiguityassumecontradictiongloss overtranscend
积累抽象词汇:otherwordly

伟大的喜剧艺术从不以彼岸世界为其目标,它所追求的并不是要予人以神秘玄惑感,它并不会通过将任何与善不一样的事物烙上罪恶的印记而否认那些模棱两可的情形。伟大的喜剧艺术家们认为,真理可呈现出各种不同的表现形态,故而他们力图强调社会行为中的对立矛盾,而不是通过诉诸于那些代表着神圣目标、字宙目的、或自然法则的超社会象片符号去掩饰或超越它们。伟大的喜剧艺术中的超越瞬间乃是一个社会性瞬间,源自这样一个坚定信念,即我们终是凡夫俗子,尽管我们竭力想成为神灵。艺术家们所致力表现的那个不乏喜剧色彩的社会,是一个由那些具有理性思维能力、充满爱心、快乐、和富于怜悯之心的人类构成的社会,他们甘愿承担人类理性行动的风险。伟大的喜剧艺术根本不祈求神灵或魔鬼,相反,它激发起我们对于理性的无畏勇气,这种勇气缘自对人类作为人所能做到的一切的信心。

17. The passage suggests that great comic art can be characterized as optimistic about the ability of humans to(细节题)

A. rid themselves of
pride
(无中生有)
B .transcend the human conditionnot gloss over or transcend them by appeals to extrasocial symbols of divine ends, cosmic purpose,or laws of nature.与原文相反)

C. differentiate
clearly between good and evil
ambiguity by branding as evil whatever differs from good.与原文相反)

D.
avoid social conflicts
and thus they seek to accentuate contradictions in social action与原文相反

E. act rationally
who are willing to assume the human risks of acting rationally.L20 who are willing to assume the human risks of acting rationally.原文改写

答案:(E)

18. It can be inferred from the passage that the author admires great comic artists primarily for their(细节题)

A. ability to understand the frequently
subtle differences between good and evil
ambiguity by branding as evil whatever differs from good.与原文相反)

B. ability to
reconcile the contradictions in human behavior
and thus they seek to accentuate contradictions in social action与原文相反

C. ability to distinguish between rational and irrational behavior
无中生有

D. insistence on
confronting the truth about the human condition
Great comic artists assume that
truth may bear all lights, and thus theyseek to
accentuate contradictions
insocial action
原文精确改写

E. insistence on
condemning human faults and weaknesses
无中生有,condemn也是作者不大可能的态度

答案:(D)
  
19. Which of the following is the most accurate description of the organization of the passage?(组织结构题)

A. A sequence of

observations leading to a prediction
(没有预测)

B. A list of
inferences drawn from facts stated at the beginning of the passage
文章是客观叙述,没有推断

C. A series of assertions related to one general subject
全文都是一个主题的客观叙述,因此正确

D. A statement of the major idea, followed by
specific examples
没有例子

E. A succession of ideas
moving from specific to general
(全文是从概括到具体的模式)

答案:(C)
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备考先锋

发表于 2009-3-6 22:33:52 |显示全部楼层
占楼先,明天传NO5-1部分

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发表于 2009-3-6 23:59:10 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 corpuscle 于 2009-3-7 00:02 编辑

NO5-2     by Aileen08


Visual recognition involves storing
核心内容
and retrieving memories. Neural
activity, triggered by the eye, forms an
image in the brain's memory system that
(5) constitutes an internal representation
of the viewed object. When an object is
encountered again, it is matched with
its internal representation and thereby
recognized. Controversy surrounds the
(10) question of whether recognition is a
SE提出关于视觉识别过程的争论
parallel, one-step process or a serial,
step-by-step one. Psychologists of the
一种无效解释,可略读(但最后才看见作者态度)
Gestalt school maintain that objects are
G
recognized as wholes in a parallel
(15) procedure: the internal representation
is matched with the retinal image in a
single operation. Other psychologists
另一种解释
have proposed that internal
representation features are matched
TS
,相对正确的观点
(20) serially with an object's features.
Although some experiments show that, as
让步,重点看后半句
an object becomes familiar, its internal
representation becomes more holistic and

the recognition process correspondingly
(25) more parallel, the weight of evidence
seems to support the serial hypothesis,
at least for objects that are not
作者态度
notably simple and familiar.

文章结构类型:解释问题型,文章第四句提出争论的问题,之后提出两种观点,最后表明态度
TSOther psychologists have proposed that internal representation features are matched serially with an object's features.
态度:文章末句
单词:
阅读专用词汇:triggeredcorrespondingly
积累抽象词汇:retinal视网膜的,Gestalt school格式塔学派
视觉辨认(visual recognition)涉及到记忆的存储(storing)以及重新提取(retrieving)。由眼睛触发的神经活动在大脑的记忆系统形成一形象,该形象对于被目睹之物构成一种内心再现图像。当某一客体再度被遇到时,它就与内心再现图象对应起来,从而得到被辨认出来。围绕着辨认究竟是一个平行的、一蹴而就的过程还是依照先后顺序的、按部就班的过程这一问题,众说纷纭,意见不一。格尔塔学派(GestaltSchool)的心理学家坚持认为,物体是作为整体在一平行的步骤中被辨认出来的:内心再现图像只通过一次性操作即完成与视网膜形象(retinal image)的对应。其它心理学家则提出,内心再现图像的特征是先后有序地与物体的特征对应起来的。虽然某些实验表明,随着一个物体变得熟悉起来,其内心再现图像亦更具整体感,辨认过程相应地更趋于平行,但证据的砝码似乎在支持序列假设(serial hypothesis),至少对于那些不甚简单、不甚熟悉的物体来说是这样的。
17.
The author is primarily concerned with
(主旨题)
(A) explaining how the brain receives images(只有首句提到,文章重点在于recognize,而不是receive
(B) synthesizing hypotheses of visual recognition文章中心不是为了合成假设,中心词错了,故错。
(C) examining the evidence supporting the serial recognition hypothesis不全面
(D) discussing visual recognition and some hypotheses proposed to explain it 结合首句(L1~3Visual recognition involves storing and retrieving memories. Neural activity)和TSL17~20Other psychologists have proposed that internal representation features are matched serially with an object's features.)可以清楚地判断
(E) reporting on recent experiments dealing with memory systems and their relationship to neural activity experiments只是用来支持假说,并不是主要内容
18.
According to the passage, Gestalt psychologists make which of the following suppositions about visual recognition?
罗马数字题,定位L13~17Gestalt school maintain that objects are recognized as wholes in a parallel procedure: the internal representation is matched with the retinal image in a single operation.
I.
A retinal image is in exactly
the same forms as its internal representation.
歪曲原意,只是匹配并不是说完全一样
II.
An object is recognized
as a whole without any need for analysis into component parts.
Psychologists观点句的改写
III.
The matching of an object with its internal representation occurs in only one step.
同样是观点的改写
(A) II only
(B) III only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III onlyD
(E) I, II, and III
19.
It can be
inferred from the passage that the matching process in visual recognition is推理题,定位L6~9When an object is encountered again, it is matched with its internal representation and thereby recognized.
(A) not a neural activity定位L2~6Neural activity, triggered by the eye, forms an image in the brain's memory system that constitutes an internal representation of the viewed object.与文章不符)
(B) not possible when an object is viewed for the very first timeB)对应文章第7When
an object is encountered again,视觉辨认至少是第二次看见物体
(C) not possible if a feature of a familiar object is changed in some way无中生有
(D) only possible when a retinal image is received in the brain as a unitary whole与原文观点相反与原文观点相反YU
(E) now fully understood as a combination of the serial and parallel processes
E,文章最后作者明确表明支持序列加工,并非两者结合
20.
It terms of its tone and form, the passage can best be characterized as
(态度题)一般都是客观公正的态度,只要认识单词应该能选对
(A) a biased exposition有偏见的阐述
(B) a speculative study推测性的研究
(C) a dispassionate presentation客观的陈述(C
(D) an indignant denial愤怒的否定
(E) a dogmatic explanation武断的解释
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备考先锋

发表于 2009-3-9 22:06:07 |显示全部楼层
No 5-3 by 风潇子
   The belief that art originates in
  intuitive rather than rational faculties

> <

  was worked out historically and
  philosophically
in the somewhat


(5) wearisome volumes of Benedetto Croce,

BC

  who is usually considered the
  originator of a new aesthetic. Croce
  was, in fact, expressing a very old                        
态度
  idea. Long before the Romantics stressed

R

(10) intuition and self-expression, the
  frenzy of inspiration was regarded as
  fundamental to art, but philosophers had
TS

  always assumed it must be controlled by
  law and by the intellectual power of
(15) putting things into harmonious order.
  This general philosophic concept of art
  was supported by technical necessities.
  It was necessary to master certain laws
    略读 举例
  and to use intellect in order to build
(20) Gothic cathedrals, or set up the stained
GC

  glass windows of Chartres. When this

C

  bracing element of craftsmanship ceased
  to dominate artists' outlook, new
  technical elements had to be adopted to
(25) maintain the intellectual element in
  art. Such were linear perspective and

P & A

anatomy.

文章结构类型:新观点推翻旧观点型,推翻艺术来源于知觉的旧观点,建立艺术要建立在理性基础上的新观点


TS
Long before the Romantics stressed intuition and self-expression, the frenzy of inspiration was regarded a fundamental to art, but philosophers had always assumed it must be controlled by law and by the intellectual power of putting things into harmonious order.

态度:
historically and philosophicallyold

单词:
阅读专用词汇:linear perspective and anatomy
积累抽象词汇intuitive,
faculty, bracing,
   
艺术源自直觉的而非理性的能力,这一信念是由贝内代托·克罗齐(Benedetto
Groce)在其令人略感厌倦乏味的著作中从历史和哲学的角度阐述建立起来的,而克罗齐一般也被视作一种全新美学体系的创始人。事实上,克罗齐所表述的乃是一个极为古老的思想。早在浪漫主义艺术家强调直觉和自我表达之前,灵感的癫狂被视作艺术之根本,但哲学家一贯认为,它必须受制于规律法则,受制于那种将万物组织成和谐秩序的理性力量。这种有关艺术的一般哲学概念由于技术必要性而获得了依据。只有当人们必须掌握了某些规律法则并运用理性,才能建造出哥特式大教堂(Gothic cathedral),或在沙特尔大教堂(Chartres)上安装彩绘玻璃窗。当这一起着主导作用的因素不再能支配艺术家们的创作观时,新的技术因素必须被采用,以维持艺术中的理性成份。这就是直线透视法(linear perspective)和解剖学(anstomy)。

17. The passage suggests that which of the following would most likely have occurred if linear perspective and anatomy had not come to influence artistic endeavor?(推理题)
A The craftsmanship that shaped Gothic architecture would have continued to dominate artists' outlooks.L 18——20 It was necessary to master certain laws and to use intellect in order to build Gothic cathedral
B Some other technical elements would have been adopted to discipline artistic inspiration.L 21——27 when...,new technical elements had to be adopted to maintain the  intellectual element in art. Such  were linear perspective and anatomy.
C Intellectual control over artistic inspiration would not have influenced painting as it did architecture.anatomy是在intellect之后出现的,所以即使它没有影响,intellect control over inspiration还是存在的)
D The role of intuitive inspiration would not have remained fundamental to theories of artistic creation.L10——13 the frenzy of inspiration was regarded as fundamental to art旧观点)
E The assumptions of aesthetic philosophers before Croce would have been invalidated.(无中生有)

答案:(B)

18. The passage supplies information for answering which of the following questions?细节题
(A) Does Romantic art exhibit the triumph of intuition over intellect?未提,L9——10 Long before the Romantics stressed intuition and self-expression
(B) Did an emphasis on linear perspective and anatomy dominate Romantic art?(文章末句,new
  technical elements had to be adopted to maintain the intellectual element in art. Such were linear perspective and anatomy. 错选了B 只有末句提到小点强调 不能算)
(C)Are the intellectual and intuitive faculties harmoniously balanced in post-Romantic art?无中生有
(D)Are the effects of the rational control of artistic inspiration evident in the great works of pre-Romantic eras?L8——10
expressing a very old idea. Long before the Romantics stressed intuition and self-expression,

(E) Was the artistic craftsmanship displayed in Gothic cathedrals also an element in paintings of this period?(无中生有)

答案:(D)

19. The passage implies that which of the following was a traditional assumption of aesthetic philosophers? (细节题)
(A) Intellectual elements in art exert a necessary control over artistic inspiration.
L 12——15 This general philosophic concept of art was supported by technical necessities. 改写)
(B) Architecture has never again reached the artistic greatness of the Gothic cathedrals.
(C) Aesthetic philosophy is determined by the technical necessities of art.(无中生有)
(D) Artistic craftsmanship is more important in architectural art than in pictorial art.(文中未提比较)
(E) Paintings lacked the intellectual element before the invention of linear perspective and anatomyWhen this bracing element of craftsmanship ceased to dominate artists' outlook才出现linear perspective and anatomy

答案:(A)


20. The author mentions "linear perspective and anatomy" in the last sentence in order
to do which of the following ?(目的题)
为了支持maintain the intellectual element在艺术中的作用
(A) Expand his argument to include painting as well as architecture
(B) Indicate his disagreement with Croce's theory of the origins of art
(C) Support his point that rational order of some kind has often seemed to discipline artistic inspiration
(D) Explain the rational elements in Gothic painting that corresponded to craftsmanship
in Gothic architecture
(E) Show the increasing sophistication of artists after the Gothic period

答案:(C)
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荣誉版主 GRE守护之星 备考先锋 AW活动特殊奖

发表于 2009-3-10 22:40:02 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 zhtwd 于 2009-3-10 22:41 编辑

NO6-1  by zhtwd

  A mysterious phenomenon is the ability of

SE

over-water migrants to travel on course. Birds,
bees, and other species can keep track of time
without any sensory cues from the outside



world,
and such “biological clocks” clearly con-

SE

tribute to their “compass sense.” For example,
促进
they can use the position of the Sun or stars,
along with the time of day, to find north. But
转折
compass sense alone cannot explain how birds


navigate the ocean: after a flock traveling east is
blown far south by a storm, it will assume the
proper northeasterly course to compensate. Per-
haps, some scientists thought, migrants deter-

SE

mine their geographic position on Earth by ce-
lestial navigation, almost as human navigators
use stars and planets, but this would demand of


SE

the animals a fantastic map sense. Researchers


now know that some species have a magnetic
sense, which might allow migrants to determine
their geographic location by detecting variations
in the strength of the Earth’s magnetic field.

文章结构类型:解释针对问题性文章。文章首句提出一个有待阐述的现象,然后提出了一种“罗盘效应”的解释,然后否定了此解释,又提出了“天体导航”的解释,然后又否定了这种解释,最后作者提出了“磁场感应”的解释,认为它有可能成为有效的解释。
TS:(无TSBut this would demand of the animals a fantastic map sense. Researchers

now know that some species have a magnetic sense.

单词:
阅读专用词汇:fantasticphenomenon
积累专业词汇:biological clock, celestial navigation, magnetic

在水面上空迁移的动物能够沿着正确方向飞行,这实乃一种神秘莫测的现象。鸟类、蜜蜂、以及其它动物种类可以追踪时辰,而不必依赖于来自外界的任何感觉醒示物,这样的“生物钟”(biological
clock)显然促进了其“方位感”(compass
sense)。例如,它们可利用太阳或星辰的位置,连同白昼的时辰,来寻找到北方这一方位。但是,方位感本身不足以解释鸟类是如何在海洋上空导航的:当一群东飞的候鸟被暴风雨吹向偏南方之后,这群鸟会采取适度的东北方向以补偿误差。某些科学家认为,或许,迁移动物是通过天体导航(celestial
navigation)来确定其在地球上的地理位置,几乎如同人类航海家利用星辰和行星那样;但这将要求动物具有一种难于令人置信的地图感(mapsense)。科研人员现在获悉,某些动物种类具备一种磁感(magnetic
sense),这可能允许动物通过测定地球磁场强度变化而确立其地理位置。


17. The main idea of the passage is that (主旨题)

(A) migration over land requires a simpler explanation than migration over water does
(
细节,无端比较)

(B) the means by which animals migrate over water are complex and only partly understood
(综合TSSE可知)

(C) the ability of migrant animals to
keep track of time is related to their magnetic sense
“compass sense.”定位L2~6Birds, bees, and other species can keep track of time without any sensory cues from the outside world, and such “biological clocks” clearly con-
tribute to their “compass sense.”


(D) knowledge of geographic location is essential to migrants with little or no compass sense
(无中生有)

(E) explanations of how animals migrate tend to
replace, rather than build on, one another
(不是取代,第一个解释没有被取代,无中生有)

答案:(B)

18. It can be inferred from the passage that if the flock of birds described in lines 8-12 were navigating by compass sense alone, they would, after the storm, fly
(给定行数题)
(A) east如果依靠compass senseafter the storm还是向东飞行, 因为罗盘效应只能判断方向)     
(B) north


(C) northwest
(D) south

(E) southeast (误选此项)

答案:(A)

19.In maintaining that migrating animals would need “a fantastic map sense” (line 17) to determine their geographic position by celestial navigation, the author intends to express(态度题)

(A)
admiration for the ability of the migrants
(态度错误)

(B) skepticism about celestial navigation as an explanation
(负态度)

(C)
certainly that the phenomenon of migration will remain mysterious
(态度错误)

(D)
interest in a new method of accounting for over-water migration
(态度错误)

(E)
surprise that animals apparently navigate in much the same way that human beings do
(态度错误)

答案:(B)

20. Of the following descriptions of migrating animals, which most strongly suggests that the animals are depending on magnetic cues to orient themselves? (逻辑题)

(A) Pigeons can properly readjust their course even when flying long distances through
exceedingly dense fogs.
(对magnetic cues起支持作用)

(B) Bison are able to reach their destination by passing through a landscape that has been partially altered by a recent fire.
(有不能排除的其他影响因素)
(C) Elephants are able to find grounds that some members of the herd have never seen before.(与题目无关)

(D) Swallows are able to return to a given spot at the same time every year.
(有不能排除的其他影响因素)

(E) Monarch butterflies coming from different parts of North America are able to arrive at the same location each winter.
(有不能排除的其他影响因素)

答案:(A)
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备考先锋

发表于 2009-3-11 20:46:46 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 MVT 于 2009-3-11 20:50 编辑

NO6  第二套  第一篇



Whether the languages of the ancient American
peoples were used for expressing abstract universal
concepts can be clearly answered in the case of
Nahuatl. Nahuatl, like Greek and German, is a lan-            N, N=Gr=Ge
(5) guage that allows the formation of extensive com-         TS
pounds. By the combination of radicals or semantic
elements, single compound words can express com-
plex conceptual relations, often of an abstract uni-
versal character.
(10)     The tlamatinime (“those who know”) were able to         T
use this rich stock of abstract terms to express the
nuances of their thought. They also availed themselves         +, SE
of other forms of expression with metaphorical mean-
ing, some probably original, some derived from Toltec              To
(15) coinages. Of these forms the most characteristic in          特殊词汇
Nahuatl is the juxtaposition of two words that,
because they are synonyms, associated terms, or even
contraries, complement each other to evoke one single
idea. Used as metaphor, the juxtaposed terms connote
(20) specific or essential traits of the being they refer to,
introducing a mode of poetry as an almost habitual
form of expression.

参考译文:
 古代美洲民族的语言是否被用来表达抽象普遍的概念,可在纳瓦特尔语言(Nahuatle)这一实例中得到明确的回答。纳瓦特尔语,犹如希腊文和德文一样,是一种可允许形成大量复合词(compound)的语言。通过对词根(radical)或语义要素(semantic element)的组合,单个的复合词可表达复杂的概念关系,通常具有一种抽象普遍之特征。 
  那些(tlamatinime)(饱学之士)得以利用这个由抽象语汇构成的丰富宝库来表达其思想的精妙内涵。此外,他们亦利用了其它带有隐喻含义的表达方式,某些可能是原创的,某些则是从托尔特克语(Toltec)的杜撰中派生而来的。在这些表达方式中,纳瓦特尔语中最独特的是将两个词语的并置(juxtaposition),由于这两个词语是同义词、关联词、或甚至是反义词,所以彼此补足,唤起一个单独的概念。并置的词语被作为隐喻使用,可表达出它们所指代事物的具体或本质的特征,从而引入诗歌的模式作为一种几乎是习以为常的表达方式。

文章结构类型:全文论证一个观点型,没有出现howeverquestion之类的字眼。
TSNahuatl, like Greek and German, is a language that allows the formation of extensive compounds.
单词:
阅读专用词汇:by the combination of, universal character, associated, evoke, connote
积累专业词汇:radical, semantic, metaphorical,

17. A main purpose of the passage is to(主旨题)
(根据TS,可以得出E选项为全面的选项)

(A) delineate the function of the
tlamatinime in Nahuatl society
(t
只是文中的一个例子)
(B) explain the abstract philosophy of the Nahuatl
thinkers
(
没有提)
(C)
argue against a theory of poetic expression by citing evidence about the Nahuatl
(
未提)
(D) explore the rich metaphorical heritage the Nahuatl received from the
Toltecs
(To
只是文章一个例子)
(E) describe some conceptual and aesthetic resources of the Nahuatl language
(
文章主旨:L6-9conceptual character; 第二段中的metaphorical meaningcomplement to each other等表示aesthetic)
答案:E

18. According to the passage, some abstract universal ideas can be expressed in Hahuatl by(细节题)
(L6-9By the combination of radicals or semantic elements, single compound words can express complex conceptual relations, often of an abstract universal character.可得D)
(A) taking away from a word any reference to particular instances
(
未提)
(B)
removing a word from its associations with other words
(
与原文combination相反)
(C) giving a word a new and opposite meaning
(
未提)
(D) putting various meaningful elements together in one word

(E) turning each word of a phrase into a
poetic metaphor
(L19-20: Used as metaphor, the juxtaposed terms connote specific or essential traits
of the being they refer to…
而不是abstract universal idea)
答案:D

19. It can be inferred solely from the information in the passage that(变相主旨题)
(A) there are
many languages that, like Greek or German, allow extensive compounding
(
误选此项。是不是原文只讲了一个Nahuatl,而不是many的缘故?)
(B)
all abstract universal ideas are ideas of complex relations
(
太绝对,文中未提)
(C) some record or evidence of the thought of the tlamatinime exists
(L10-14” The tlamatinime (“those who know”) were able to use this rich stock of abstract terms to express the nuances of their thought. They also availed themselves of other forms ofexpression with metaphorical meaning, some probably original, some derived from Toltec coinages.
t来做例子说明Nahuatl的作用,所以应该是一种evidence/record。另外最后一句 Used as metaphor, the juxtaposed terms connote specific or essential traits of the being they refer to, introducing a mode of poetry as an almost habitual form of expression.” A mode of poetry就是一种record)
(D) metaphors are always used in Nahuatl to
express abstract conceptual relationships
(L19-20:
Used as metaphor, the juxtaposed terms connote specific or essential traits
of the being they refer to…
而不是abstract conceptual relationships)
(E) the
abstract terms of the Nahuatl language are habitually used in poetry
(
文中最后一句说的是metaphor)
答案:C
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Aries白羊座 荣誉版主 QQ联合登录

发表于 2009-3-13 12:56:49 |显示全部楼层
NO6-3     by corpuscle
All of Francoise Dupare's surviving

SE
F-D
  paintings blend portraiture and genre.
  Her subjects appear to be acquaintances
  whom she has asked to pose; she has

(5) captured both their self-consciousness

  and the spontaneity of their everyday
  activities, the depiction of which
  characterizes genre painting. But genre
SE
、转折
  painting, especially when it portrayed
(10) members of the humblest classes, was


  never popular in eighteenth-century Fran-


18-c-F

  ce. The Le Nain brothers and Georges
L=G

  de La Tour, who also chose such themes,
  were largely ignored. Their present
(15) high standing is due to a different,more

SE
、特殊短语,≠,>
  democratic political climate and to
  different aesthetic values: we no longer

  require artists to provide ideal images
  of humanity for our moral edification
(20) but rather regard such idealization as a
﹥﹤
  falsification of the truth. Duparc gives
  no improving message and discreetly
  refrains from judging her subjects. In
  brief, her works neither elevate nor
特殊短语
(25) instruct. This restraint largely
  explains her lack of popular success
  during her lifetime, even if her talent

让步
  did not go completely unrecognized by
  her eighteenth-century French

18-c-F

(30) contemporaries.

费朗索瓦丝·迪帕克(Francoise Duparc)所有幸存的绘画作品将肖像画和风俗画融为一体。她的创作对象似乎是她的熟人,这些人应她之邀前来摆姿势作画。无论是他们日常活动的忸怩害羞之态,还是其自然率直之神情,她都一并捕捉住,而对日常活动的描绘,即构成了风俗画(genre painting)之特征。然则,风欲画,尤其是当它表现最卑微阶层的成员时,在十八世纪的法国从未受到人们的青睐。勒纳安(Le Nain)兄弟以及乔治·德·拉·图尔(Georges de La Tour)同样也选择了这样的题材,但在很大程度上被人不屑一顾。他们目前很高的地位缘自一种全然不同的、更为民主的政治氛围,并且缘自全然不同的美学价值:我们不再要求艺术家提供理想化的人类形象来进行道德教诲,相反,却会把这种理想化的做法视作对真理的弄虚作假。迪帕克从不传达出粉饰现实的主题,并小心翼翼地避免对其人物对象作道德评判。简而言之,她的作品既不美化,亦不说教。这种克制在很大程度上足以解释她有生之年何以会缺乏普遍的成功,虽然她的艺术禀赋并没有遭到其十八世纪法国同代人的彻底漠视。

文章结构类型:全文一个观点型,全篇文章说的都是Francoise Dupare's paintings的问题.
TS没有特别的主题句.

24. According to the passage, modern viewers are not likely to value which of the following qualities in a painting?推理题,定位L17~21we no longer require artists to provide ideal images of humanity for our moral edification but rather regard such idealization as a falsification of the truth.
A.
The technical elements of the painting
定位L1~2All of Francoise Dupare's surviving paintings blend portraiture and genre.文章肯定D的成功
B.
The spontaneity of the painting
定位L4~7she has captured both their self-consciousness and the spontaneity of
their everyday activities
C.
The moral lesson imparted by the painting

D.
The degree to which the painting realistically depicts its subject
定位L17~21we no longer require artists to provide ideal images of humanity for our moral edification but rather regard such idealization as a falsification of the truth.由此可以看出现在的人们很看重真实
E.
The degree to which the artist's personality is revealed in the painting


答案:(C)

25. If the history of Duparc's artistic reputation were to follow that of the Le Nain brothers and Georges de La Tour, present-day assessments of her work would be likely to contain which of the following?推理题,将D等同于Le Nain brothers and Georges de La TourLG的特征也是D的特征,定位L12~17The Le Nain brothers and Georges de La Tour, who also chose such themes, were largely ignored. Their present high standing is due to a different, more democratic political climate and to different aesthetic values:
A.
An evaluation that accords high status to her work

B.
Acknowledgement of her technical expertise but dismissal of her subject matter as trivial

C.
Agreement with assessments made in her own time but acknowledgements of the exceptional quality of a few of her paintings

D.
Placement of her among the foremost artists of her century

E.
A reclassification of her work as portraiture rather than genre painting


答案:(A)  

26. It can be inferred from the passage that the term "genre painting" would most likely apply to which of the following?推理题,定位L4~12she has captured both their self-consciousness and the spontaneity of their everyday activities, the depiction of which characterizes genre painting. But genre painting, especially when it portrayed members of the humblest classes, was never popular in eighteenth-century France.
A.
A painting depicting a glorious moment of victory following a battle

B.
A painting illustrating a narrative from the Bible

C.
A portrayal of a mythological Greek goddess

D.
A portrayal of a servant engaged in his work

E.
A formal portrait of an eighteenth- century king


答案:(D)

27. The argument of the passage best supports which of the following contentions concerning judgments of artistic work?泛指化题目
A.
Aesthetic judgments can be influenced by the political beliefs of those making the judgment.
(定位L14~17Their
Present
high standing is due to a different, more
democratic political climate and to different aesthetic values

B.
Judgments of the value of an artist's work made by his or her contemporaries must be discounted
before a true judgment can be made.
文中未提
C.
Modern aesthetic taste is once again moving in the direction of regarding idealistic painting as the most desirable

form of painting.与原文相反,定位L17~21 we no longer require artists to provide ideal images of humanity for our moral edification but rather regard such idealization as a falsification of the truth.
D.
In order to be highly regarded, an artist cannot be solely identified with one particular kind of painting.
文中未提
E.
Spontaneity is the most valuable quality a portrait painter can have.
文中未提

答案(A)  
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发表于 2009-3-13 16:53:02 |显示全部楼层

NO. 7-1

本帖最后由 skyshylin 于 2009-3-13 17:09 编辑

NO.7-1
   Tillie Olsen's fiction and essays                         TO
  have been widely and rightly
  acknowledged as major contributions
  to American literature. Her work has
(5) been particularly valued by contemporary
  feminists. Yet few of Olsen's readers                      SE
  realize the extent to which her vision
  and choice of subject are rooted in an
  earlier literary heritage
—the tradition
(10) of radical political thought, mostly
  socialist and anarchist, of the 1910's                  1910
  and 1920's, and the Old Left tradition                 1920, OL
  of the 1930's. I do not mean that one                  1930
  can adequately explain the eloquence
(15) of her work in terms of its political
  origins, or that left-wing politics
  were the single most important influence               

  on it. My point is that its central                    TS
  consciousness
—its profound
(20) understanding of class and gender
  as shaping influences on people's
  lives—owes much to that earlier
  literary heritage
, a heritage that,
  in general, has not been sufficiently
(25) valued by most contemporary literary
critics.

文章结构类型:全文论证一个观点型
TS:My point is that its central consciousness owes much to that earlier
literary heritage

  蒂莉•奥尔森(Tillie Olson)的小说及散文被广泛且当之无愧地承认为对美国文
学的重大贡献。她的作品尤其受到当代女权主义者的重视。然则,在奥尔森的读者群中,
几乎无人意识到她的见解和对题材的选择是在多大程度上植根于一个较为早期的文学遗
产——即激进的政治思想之传统,主要是二十世纪一十年代和二十年代中的社会主义
(socialist)和无政府主义(anarchist)传统,以及二十世纪三十年代的老左派(Old
Left)传统。我并非意指我们凭藉其作品的政治缘源就能充分解释其作品的力度,也不
是意指左翼政治是对其作品所产生的唯一最重要的影响。我的论点是,其作品的中心意
识——它将阶级和性别作为人们生活的决定性影响而作出的深邃理解——在很大程度上
借鉴了那个早期的文学遗产,而这一遗产就总体而言还尚未获得大多数当代文学评论家
的足够重视。

24. The primary purpose of the passage is to (主旨题)
A. argue that Olsen's understanding of class and gender is her greatest gift as a writer(文中未提greatest gift)
B. acknowledge Olsen's importance as the leading spokesperson for a radical literary heritage(文中未提leading)
C. point out a literary heritage to which Olsen's work is related(定位TS)
D. urge literary critics to investigate the origins of a literary heritage(文中未提origins of a literary heritage)
E. suggest that Olsen's work has been placed in a literary heritage to which it does not belong(文中未说这个文学传统是否是其所属的)

————————————————————————
答案:(C)

25. According to the author, which of the     (细节题)
following is true of the heritage mentioned
in the passage?
A. It emphasizes gender as the determinate (与这个传统无关)
influence on people's lives.
B. It has been the most important influence (正是作者不同意的)
on Olsen's work.
C. It includes political traditions that        (定位L9-13)
span three decades of the twentieth century.
D. It explains the eloquence but not the (未提subject matter)
subject matter of Olsen's work.
E. It reflects primarily the development (除了socialist,还有anarchist)
of socialist political thought in the early
twentieth century.

————————————————————————
答案:(C)

26. In the sentence "I do not…influence   (细节题)
on it" (lines 13-18), the author does which
of the following?
A. Broadens an existing classification. (文中未提分类)
B. Contradicts the passage's central thesis. (作者是不可能与文章的核心观点的相矛盾的)
C. Qualifies a commonly accepted point of  (无关)
view.
D. Presents conflicting explanations for a  (这是作者弱化语气,不是冲突)
phenomenon.
E. Denies possible interpretations of an
earlier assertion.

————————————————————————
答案:(E)

27. According to the author, Olsen's work (细节题)
has been
A. rightly acknowledged for its contribution (是美国文学,不是政治思想)
to political thought
B. thought to represent the beginning of a  (继承了早期的传统,未说开创了一个新传统)
new literary tradition
C. a needed impetus for social change  (未提)
D. most clearly influenced by feminism (未提)
E. deservedly admired by readers  (定位L1-6)

————————————————————————
答案:(E)
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发表于 2009-3-21 12:44:01 |显示全部楼层
近期进度安排:

本周周六:90-4、90-10
下周一:91-2、91-4
下周二:91-10、92-2
下周三:92-4、92-10
下周四:93-2、93-4
下周五:93-10、94-2
下周六:94-4、94-10

限时,争取一长一短在18分钟完成,能在15分钟完成更好
由于90后的题目有杨继真题解析,我们不再进行群内讨论。题目不明白的看杨继真题解析,如果仍不明白,在本帖交流,当天事情当天毕


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GRE守护之星 AW活动特殊奖

发表于 2009-3-22 10:45:13 |显示全部楼层
13# corpuscle
本周周六:90-4、90-10

90-4
S1: 18C, 26E, 27D - 最后两题都是因为同一个point没搞懂
S5: 21A, 25A, 27E - 27题还是不大能想清爽

90-10
TBD

对答案检查,有的是文章意思误解了,有的是选项没看完整。有道是书读百遍,其意自现,15minutes确实太赶了......

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发表于 2009-3-22 15:50:22 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 corpuscle 于 2009-3-22 15:51 编辑
13# corpuscle  
本周周六:90-4、90-10

90-4
S1: 18C, 26E, 27D - 最后两题都是因为同一个point没搞懂
S5: 21A, 25A, 27E - 27题还是不大能想清爽

90-10
TBD

对答案检查,有的是文章意思误解了,有 ...
Genev 发表于 2009-3-22 10:45

S1:
18C  In field practice,a subsurface is mapped by arranging a series of wave-train sources, such as small dynamite explosions,in a grid pattern.
number of sources in the grid pattern这个题目感觉需要点专业知识去理解
26E  作者对新的评估是复杂态度,While the new doctrine seems almost certainly correct, the one papyrus fragment raises the specter that another may be unearthed, showing, for instance, that it was a posthumous production of the Danaid tetralogy which bested Sophocles, and throwing the date once more into utter confusion. This is unlikely to happen, but it warns us that perhaps the most salutary feature of the papyrus scrap is its message of the extreme difficulty of classifying and categorizing rigidly the development of a creative artist.
26E适用于那种正态度而不是这种复杂态度。
27D
This is unlikely to happen
, E可以从最后一句推断出来,but it warns us....
S5:
21A只是第三段的内容,主旨题要看TS,即第二段前3句
25A 定位L16~19:For example, many wind-pollinated species fail to release pollen when wind speeds are low or when humid conditions prevail.换句话说,other species still release pollen when wind speeds are low or when humid conditions prevail
27 第一段的观点是风媒植物要释放大量花粉来补偿这种随机性的损失。D正是花粉损失的一种可能,第二段也说了,风速较慢或者天气潮湿的时候,很多植物不释放花粉,说明这两种情况下花粉的损失是很大的,因此需要释放大量花粉来补偿这种损失。A说反了,应该是风速小;BC是第二段的内容,支持的是新观点反驳旧观点的;E文章未提吧?
9010还没来得及做
15分钟还是很有挑战性的,先试试控制到20分钟,再慢慢提速吧


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