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[主题活动] Argument写作入门-开头段第一步:梳理结论、论据 [复制链接]

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发表于 2017-6-1 10:51:26 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 oceann 于 2017-6-1 11:12 编辑

原题:

The following appeared in a memo from the director of student housing at Buckingham College.

"To serve the housing needs of our students, Buckingham College should build a number of new dormitories. Buckingham's enrollment is growing and, based on current trends, will double over the next 50 years, thus making existing dormitory space inadequate. Moreover, the average rent for an apartment in our town has risen in recent years. Consequently, students will find it increasingly difficult to afford off-campus housing. Finally, attractive new dormitories would make prospective students more likely to enroll at Buckingham."

Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.


结论: Buckingham College should build a number of new dormitories.
论据: 1. enrollment is growing 2. cannot afford off-campus housing 3. attractive new dorm

写出开头段的第一部分,概括原题中的结论和主要论据。
Buckingham College should build many new dormitories, because the growing enrollment of studens, the rising rent for off-campus apartments and to attractive prospective students by new dormitories.

参考答案
According to the director, Buckingham College should commit to building new dorms given the projected enrollment over the next 5 decades, the expected shortage of dorm space. He also argues that new dorms can help students who cannot afford off-campus apartments that have become more expensive in average and attract more prospective students to study at Buckingham.  

The director argues that more dorms should be built to meet the demand of housing among Buckingham students and to recruit more students to join the college.


改写:
短:The director argues that Buckingham College should build new dorms to fulfil the growing demand of on-campus housing among BuckingHam students and to attract prospective students to join the college.
长:The director argues that Buckingham College should build new dorms considering the growing enrollment which would cause inadequate dorm space. Moreover, he claims that it can also benefit students who cannot afford the rising rent of off-campus apartment and attract more prospective students to join the college.

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发表于 2017-6-20 10:56:29 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 芥弥 于 2017-6-20 10:57 编辑
Argument8: The following appeared in a memo from the director of student housing at Buckingham College.

"To serve the housing needs of our students, Buckingham College should build a number of new dormitories. Buckingham's enrollment is growing and, based on current trends, will double over the next 50 years, thus making existing dormitory space inadequate. Moreover, the average rent for an apartment in our town has risen in recent years. Consequently, students will find it increasingly difficult to afford off-campus housing. Finally, attractive new dormitories would make prospective students more likely to enroll at Buckingham."

Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.


Argument:
To serve the housing needs of our students, Buckingham College should build a number of new dormitories.

Evidences:
1.Buckingham's enrollment is growing and, based on current trends, will double over the next 50 years, thus making existing dormitory space inadequate.
2.Moreover, the average rent for an apartment in our town has risen in recent years. Consequently, students will find it increasingly difficult to afford off-campus housing.
3.Finally, attractive new dormitories would make prospective students more likely to enroll at Buckingham.

According to the director of student housing, Buckingham College should increase the number of domitories given the growing enrollment based on current trends, the increasing housing rent in town and the aim to attract more students.


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发表于 2017-6-26 17:53:34 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 yaqizhang1 于 2017-6-30 17:20 编辑

2017.6.30
题目8:
The following appeared in a memo from the director of student housing at Buckingham College.
"To serve the housing needs of our students, Buckingham College should build a number of new dormitories. Buckingham's enrollment is growing and, based on current trends, will double over the next 50 years, thus making existing dormitory space inadequate. Moreover, the average rent for an apartment in our town has risen in recent years. Consequently, students will find it increasingly difficult to afford off-campus housing. Finally, attractive new dormitories would make prospective students more likely to enroll at Buckingham."
Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

结论:
To serve the housing needs of our students, Buckingham College should build a number of new dormitories.

论据:
1.Buckingham's enrollment is growing and, based on current trends, will double over the next 50 years, thus making existing dormitory space inadequate.
2.Moreover, the average rent for an apartment in our town has risen in recent years.Consequently, students will find it increasingly difficult to afford off-campus housing.
3.Finally, attractive new dormitories would make prospective students more likely to enroll at Buckingham.

首段第一部分:
The director recommends the college to build new dormitories based on the following arguments. Firstly,the number of students is arising and will possibly burgeon to twice of its original number in the next 5 decades, which he believes, nessacitates the building of new dormitories.Secondly, Off-campus housing would become unaffordable given the increasing average rent.Thirdly,new dormitories would attract prospective students.

题目1 woven baskets uniqueness

Woven baskets characterized by a particular distinctive pattern have previously been found only in the immediate vicinity of the prehistoric village of Palea and therefore were believed to have been made only by the Palean people. Recently, however, archaeologists discovered such a "Palean" basket in Lithos, an ancient village across the Brim River from Palea. The Brim River is very deep and broad, and so the ancient Paleans could have crossed it only by boat, and no Palean boats have been found. Thus it follows that the so-called Palean baskets were not uniquely Palean.

Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

结论:
the so-called Palean baskets were not uniquely Palean.

论据:
Palean baskets are found in Lithos which is separated from Palea by the Brim River.
The Brim River is deep and broad.
No Palean boats have been found.

首段第一部分:
According to the writer, Palean baskets had previously only been found in Palean and were believed to be made only by Palean people.But recently, it was also found in Lithos, a villige which seperated from Palea by the Brim River.There are two inpretations for this.One is that Litho people were capable of making Palean baskets.The other is that they were still made in Palean but were brought to Litho. To exclude the second possiblility, the writer first assumes the transaction between the two peoples can only be made possible by boat because of the wide and deep river between them. And because no palean boats have been found, no transaction can happen between them.He thus concludes Palean baskets were not uniquely Palean.

题目
Argument 3

The following appeared as a letter to the editor from a Central Plaza store owner.
"Over the past two years, the number of shoppers in Central Plaza has been steadily decreasing while the popularity of skateboarding has increased dramatically. Many Central Plaza store owners believe that the decrease in their business is due to the number of skateboard users in the plaza. There has also been a dramatic increase in the amount of litter and vandalism throughout the plaza. Thus, we recommend that the city prohibit skateboarding in Central Plaza. If skateboarding is prohibited here, we predict that business in Central Plaza will return to its previously high levels.”
  

Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation is likely to have the predicted result. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation.

结论
If skateboarding is prohibited, business in Central Plaza will return to its preciously high level.

论据
There is an anticorrelation between the number of costumers in Central Plaza and that in skateboarding.
Many Central Plaza store owners believe that the decrease in their business is due to the number of skateboard users in the plaza.
There has also been a dramatic increase in the amount of litter and vandalism throughout the plaza.

首段第一部分:
According to the Central plaza owners.The number of people adoring skateboard is increasing while that in the plaza store is the opposite in the past two years.Many owners have the consensus that the burgeoning number of skateboard users prohibit their bussiness.To make matters worse,the amount of litter and vandalism is also rising. The owner then suggests prohibition of skateboarding in Central plaza believing that it will revitalize the bussiness.

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发表于 2017-7-27 15:29:13 |显示全部楼层
练习一 argument 4

抄写完整原题
The following appeared in a letter from a homeowner to a friend.
"Of the two leading real estate firms in our town—Adams Realty and Fitch Realty—Adams Realty is clearly superior. Adams has 40 real estate agents; in contrast, Fitch has 25, many of whom work only part-time. Moreover, Adams' revenue last year was twice as high as that of Fitch and included home sales that averaged $168,000, compared to Fitch's $144,000. Homes listed with Adams sell faster as well: ten years ago I listed my home with Fitch, and it took more than four months to sell; last year, when I sold another home, I listed it with Adams, and it took only one month. Thus, if you want to sell your home quickly and at a good price, you should use Adams Realty."

Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted.

列出结论
Of the two leading real estate firms in our town—Adams Realty and Fitch Realty—Adams Realty is clearly superior.
Thus, if you want to sell your home quickly and at a good price, you should use Adams Realty.

列出论据
1.Adams has 40 real estate agents; in contrast, Fitch has 25, many of whom work only part-time.
2. Moreover, Adams' revenue last year was twice as high as that of Fitch and included home sales that averaged $168,000, compared to Fitch's $144,000.
3. Homes listed with Adams sell faster as well.

写出开头段的第一部分,概括原题中的结论和主要论据。
The homeowner suggests that his friends should use Adams Realty to sell his or her house for its superiority when compared with Fitch: Adams has more fixed agents, earns more revenue and home sales and sells estates faster.

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发表于 2017-7-27 16:03:58 |显示全部楼层
摘抄原题
Arctic deer live on islands in Canada's arctic regions.  They search for food by moving
over ice from island to island during the course of the year. Their habitat is limited to areas
warm enough to sustain the plants on which they feed and cold enough, at least some of
the year, for the ice to cover the sea separating the islands, allowing the deer to travel
over it. Unfortunately, according to reports from local hunters, the deer populations are
declining. Since these reports coincide with recent global warming trends that have
caused the sea ice to melt, we can conclude that the purported decline in deer
populations is the result of the deer's being unable to follow their age-old migration
patterns across the frozen sea.

Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

结论
Since these reports coincide with recent global warming trends that have
caused the sea ice to melt, we can conclude that the purported decline in deer
populations is the result of the deer being unable to follow their age-old migration
patterns across the frozen sea.

证据
1.Arctic deer live on islands in Canada's arctic regions.
2.They search for food by moving over ice from island to island during the course of the year.
3.Their habitat is limited to areas warm enough to sustain the plants on which they feed and cold enough, at least some of the year, for the ice to cover the sea separating the islands, allowing the deer to travel over it.
4.Unfortunately, according to reports from local hunters, the deer populations are declining.

首段
According to the arguer, rumor has it that the declination in the deer populations ascribes to the disappearance of inveterate migration route triggered by global warming. Living in artic regions, the deers' habitat is limited and they have to migrate itinerantly and their migration was hindered by climate change.

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发表于 2017-7-28 14:22:14 |显示全部楼层
原题

The following appeared as part of an article in a business magazine.

"A recent study rating 300 male and female Mentian advertising executives according to the average number of hours they sleep per night showed an association between the amount of sleep the executives need and the success of their firms. Of the advertising firms studied, those whose executives reported needing no more than 6 hours of sleep per night had higher profit margins and faster growth. These results suggest that if a business wants to prosper, it should hire only people who need less than 6 hours of sleep per night."

Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted.

观点
These results suggest that if a business wants to prosper, it should hire only people who need less than 6 hours of sleep per night."


论据
1.A recent study rating 300 male and female Mentian advertising executives according to the average number of hours they sleep per night showed an association between the amount of sleep the executives need and the success of their firms.
2.Of the advertising firms studied, those whose executives reported needing no more than 6 hours of sleep per night had higher profit margins and faster growth.

Grounding on the recent investigation of the advertising executives about their sleeping hours and the success of their firms, the arguer purports that ambitious business desires to pursue prosperity should hire employees sleeping less than 6 hours per night.

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发表于 2017-9-19 23:00:39 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 风过之痕.NE 于 2017-9-19 23:04 编辑

Argument 3
The following appeared as a letter to the editor from a Central Plaza store owner.

"Over the past two years, the number of shoppers in Central Plaza has been steadily decreasing while the popularity of skateboarding has increased dramatically. Many Central Plaza store owners believe that the decrease in their business is due to the number of skateboard users in the plaza. There has also been a dramatic increase in the amount of litter and vandalism throughout the plaza. Thus, we recommend that the city prohibit skateboarding in Central Plaza. If skateboarding is prohibited here, we predict that business in Central Plaza will return to its previously high levels."

Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation is likely to have the predicted result. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation.

结论:prohibit the skateboard

论据:
The number of shoppers in Central Plaza has been steadily decreasing while the popularity of skateboarding has increased dramatically.

A dramatic increase in the amount of litter and vandalism throughout the plaza

According to the author, the decrease of shops in the central plaza is caused by the popularity of skateboarding. Furthermore, the author indicate that the popularity of skateboarding also lead to more litter and vandalism.

Argument 65
When Stanley Park first opened, it was the largest, most heavily used public park in town. It is still the largest park, but it is no longer heavily used. Video cameras mounted in the park's parking lots last month revealed the park's drop in popularity: the recordings showed an average of only 50 cars per day. In contrast, tiny Carlton Park in the heart of the business district is visited by more than 150 people on a typical weekday. An obvious difference is that Carlton Park, unlike Stanley Park, provides ample seating. Thus, if Stanley Park is ever to be as popular with our citizens as Carlton Park, the town will obviously need to provide more benches, thereby converting some of the unused open areas into spaces suitable for socializing.

Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument.Be sure to explain how the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted.

主题:Provide more benches

论据:
1.        Obvious difference is that Carlton Park, unlike Stanley Park, provides ample seating.

2.        50 cars per day

According to the author, the administrator of Stanley Park should learn the experience of Carlton Park and provide more benches to block the car from into coming so as to make Stanley Park popular again.

-----------------------这种跟别人比的论据应该怎么说?-------------------------------------
Argument 78
The following appeared in a memo from the vice president of a food distribution company with food storage warehouses in several cities.

"Recently, we signed a contract with the Fly-Away Pest Control Company to provide pest control services at our fast-food warehouse in Palm City, but last month we discovered that over $20,000 worth of food there had been destroyed by pest damage. Meanwhile, the Buzzoff Pest Control Company, which we have used for many years, continued to service our warehouse in Wintervale, and last month only $10,000 worth of the food stored there had been destroyed by pest damage. Even though the price charged by Fly-Away is considerably lower, our best means of saving money is to return to Buzzoff for all our pest control services."

Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

结论:turn to Buzzoff
论据:
1.$20,000 vs$10,000
The vice president argues that the food distribution company should switch back to the Buzzoff company since the food destroyed last month by pest damage in this warehouse is two times bigger than their warehouse in other city using Buzzoff’s service.

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发表于 2017-11-9 01:32:39 |显示全部楼层
非常受益!谢谢老师!

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发表于 2018-5-19 01:41:26 |显示全部楼层
感谢分享!好贴!

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