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发表于 2012-6-3 17:51:38 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 rjj21664264 于 2012-6-3 17:58 编辑

阅读也算是一大弱项,努力进行精读吧~

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发表于 2012-6-3 18:01:30 |显示全部楼层
TPO10错了5个----求看解题思路,是不是有问题

Paragraph 2: The function and status of ceramics in China varied from dynasty to dynasty, so they may be utilitarian, burial, trade-collectors', or even ritual objects, according to their quality and the era in which they were made. The ceramics fall into three broad types—earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain—for vessels, architectural items such as roof tiles, and modeled objects and figures. In addition, there was an important group of sculptures made for religious use, the majority of which were produced in earthenware.

1.The word “status” in the passage is closest in meaning to
○ origin
○ importance
○ quality
○ design
【词汇题,pass】

2. According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true of Chinese ceramics?
○ The function of ceramics remained the same from dynasty to dynasty.
○ The use of ceramics as trade objects is better documented than the use of ceramics as ritual objects.
○ There was little variation in quality for any type of ceramics over time.
○ Some religious sculptures were made using the earthenware type of ceramics.
【分析:事实题
选项A,本末倒置,定位在第一句,vary跟选项中same取反,错;
选项B,无中生有,文中没有提到此信息;
选项C,无中生有,定位第一句,形容词little错;
选项D,正确,定位最后一句】

Paragraph 3: The earliest ceramics were fired to earthenware temperatures, but as early as the fifteenth century B.C., high-temperature stonewares were being made with glazed surfaces. During the Six Dynasties period (AD 265-589), kilns in north China were producing high-fired ceramics of good quality. Whitewares produced in Hebei and Henan provinces from the seventh to the tenth centuries evolved into the highly prized porcelains of the Song dynasty (AD. 960-1279), long regarded as one of the high points in the history of China's ceramic industry. The tradition of religious sculpture extends over most historical periods but is less clearly delineated than that of stonewares or porcelains, for it embraces the old custom of earthenware burial ceramics with later religious images and architectural ornament. Ceramic products also include lead-glazed tomb models of the Han dynasty, three-color lead-glazed vessels and figures of the Tang dynasty, and Ming three-color temple ornaments, in which the motifs were outlined in a raised trail of slip—as well as the many burial ceramics produced in imitation of vessels made in materials of higher intrinsic value.

3. The word “evolve” in the passage is closest in meaning to
○ divided
○ extended
○ developed
○ vanished
【词汇题,pass】

4. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
○ While stonewares and porcelains are found throughout most historical periods, religious sculpture is limited to the ancient period.
○ Religious sculpture was created in most periods, but its history is less clear than that of stonewares or porcelains because some old forms continued to be used even when new ones were developed.
○ While stonewares and porcelains changed throughout history, religious sculpture remained uniform in form and use.
○ The historical development of religious sculpture is relatively unclear because religious sculptures sometimes resemble earthenware architectural ornaments.
【分析:highllight题
不知道怎么分析,经常错:我是根据比较、原因两个关系找到正确选项的】


5. Paragraph 3 supports all of the following concerning the history of the ceramic industry in China EXCEPT:
○ The earliest high-fired ceramics were of poor quality.
○ Ceramics produced during the Tang and Ming dynasties sometimes incorporated multiple colors.
○ Earthenware ceramics were produced in China before stonewares were.
○ The Song dynasty period was notable for the production of high quality porcelain ceramics.
【分析:except题,选出的答案必定跟文中相反或不存在的
选中A,定位第2句,跟事实相反,good和选项poor取反;
选项B,根据大写单词Tang和Ming定位最后一句;
选项C,定位第一句,before和early都有表示时间先后关系,根据earliest理解;
选项D,根据大写单词Song定位;】

Paragraph 4: Trade between the West and the settled and prosperous Chinese dynasties introduced new forms and different technologies. One of the most far-reaching examples is the impact of the fine ninth-century AD. Chinese porcelain wares imported into the Arab world. So admired were these pieces that they encouraged the development of earthenware made in imitation of porcelain and instigated research into the method of their manufacture. From the Middle East the Chinese acquired a blue pigment—a purified form of cobalt oxide unobtainable at that time in China—that contained only a low level of manganese. Cobalt ores found in China have a high manganese content, which produces a more muted blue-gray color. In the seventeenth century, the trading activities of the Dutch East India Company resulted in vast quantities of decorated Chinese porcelain being brought to Europe, which stimulated and influenced the work of a wide variety of wares, notably Delft. The Chinese themselves adapted many specific vessel forms from the West, such as bottles with long spouts, and designed a range of decorative patterns especially for the European market.

6. The word “instigate” in the passage is closest in meaning to
○ improved
○ investigated
○ narrowed
○ caused
【词汇题,错了】

7. According to paragraph 4, one consequence of the trade of Chinese ceramics was
○ the transfer of a distinctive blue pigment from China to the Middle East
○ an immediate change from earthenware production to porcelain production in European countries
○ Chinese production of wares made for the European market
○ a decreased number of porcelain vessels available on the European market
【分析:事实题----错选B
选项A,from…to…对象弄反了;
选择C,应该是Chinese porcelain made for the European market吧?
选项D,无中生有,decreased形容词修饰错误;
正确选项B,应该是根据result in=consequence得出的】

Paragraph 5: Just as painted designs on Greek pots may seem today to be purely decorative, whereas in fact they were carefully and precisely worked out so that at the time, their meaning was clear, so it is with Chinese pots. To twentieth-century eyes, Chinese pottery may appear merely decorative, yet to the Chinese the form of each object and its adornment had meaning and significance. The dragon represented the emperor, and the phoenix, the empress; the pomegranate indicated fertility, and a pair of fish, happiness; mandarin ducks stood for wedded bliss; the pine tree, peach, and crane are emblems of long life; and fish leaping from waves indicated success in the civil service examinations. Only when European decorative themes were introduced did these meanings become obscured or even lost.

8. The word “whereas” in the passage is closest in meaning to
○ while
○ previously
○ surprisingly
○ because
【词汇题,pass】

9. In paragraph 5, the author compares the designs on Chinese pots to those on Greek pots in order to
○ emphasize that while Chinese pots were decorative, Greek pots were functional
○ argue that the designs on Chinese pots had specific meanings and were not just decorative
○ argue that twentieth-century scholars are better able to understand these designs than were ancient scholars
○ explain how scholars have identified the meaning of specific images on Chinese pots
【分析:目的题----错选D
定位第一句话解题】

10. Which of the following is mentioned in paragraph 5 as being symbolically represented on Chinese ceramics?
○ Chinese rulers
○ love of homeland
○ loyally to friends
○ success in trade
【分析:细节题----错选C
在文中举例中找,正确答案A】

11. Paragraph 5 suggests which of the following about the decorations on Chinese pottery?
○ They had more importance for aristocrats than for ordinary citizens.
○ Their significance may have remained clear had the Chinese not come under foreign influence.
○ They contain some of the same images that appear on Greek pots
○ Their significance is now as clear to twentieth century observers as it was to the early Chinese.
【分析:推断题
定位最后一句话解题】

Paragraph 6: From early times pots were used in both religious and secular contexts. The imperial court commissioned work and in the Yuan dynasty (A.D. 1279-1368) an imperial ceramic factory was established at Jingdezhen. Pots played an important part in some religious ceremonies. Long and often lyrical descriptions of the different types of ware exist that assist in classifying pots, although these sometimes confuse an already large and complicated picture.

12. The word “these” in the passage refers to
○ religious ceremonies
○ descriptions
○ types of ware
○ pots
【指代题---错选C
正确B】


Paragraph 4: Trade between the West and the settled and prosperous Chinese dynasties introduced new forms and different technologies. One of the most far-reaching examples is the impact of the fine ninth-century AD. Chinese porcelain wares imported into the Arab world. ■So admired were these pieces that they encouraged the development of earthenware made in imitation of porcelain and instigated research into the method of their manufacture. ■From the Middle East the Chinese acquired a blue pigment—a purified form of cobalt oxide unobtainable at that time in China—that contained only a low level of manganese. Cobalt ores found in China have a high manganese content, which produces a more muted blue-gray color. ■In the seventeenth century, the trading activities of the Dutch East India Company resulted in vast quantities of decorated Chinese porcelain being brought to Europe, which stimulated and influenced the work of a wide variety of wares, notably Delft. ■The Chinese themselves adapted many specific vessel forms from the West, such as bottles with long spouts, and designed a range of decorative patterns especially for the European market.

13. Look at the four squares [■]that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Foreign trade was also responsible for certain innovations in coloring.
Where could the sentence best fit?

14.Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Ceramics have been produced in China for a very long time.



Answer choices
○ The Chinese produced earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain pottery and they used their ceramics for a variety of utilitarian, architectural, and ceremonial purposes.
○ The shape and decoration of ceramics produced for religious use in China were influenced by Chinese ceramics produced for export.
○ As a result of trade relations, Chinese ceramic production changed and Chinese influenced the ceramics production of other countries.
○ Chinese burial ceramics have the longest and most varied history of production and were frequently decorated with written texts that help scholars date them.
○ Before China had contact with the West, the meaning of various designs used to decorate Chinese ceramics was well understood.
○ Ceramics made in imperial factories were used in both religious and non-religious contexts.

【难得全对】

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发表于 2012-6-3 18:02:47 |显示全部楼层
TPO10 第二篇 (错2个)

1. According to paragraph 1, which of thefollowing must we find out in order to determine the impact of human activitiesupon climate?

The major changes in climate over the past millennia

The degree to which the climatevaries naturally

The best method for measuring climatic change

The millennium when humans began tointerfere with the climate

【分析:事实题----错选D

正确选项B,定位至最后一句,这句话太长了,晕啊


3. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essentialinformation in the highlightedsentence
in the passage? Incorrect choices changethe meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.


Because physical and chemicalproperties of substances are unchanging, they are useful records of climatefluctuations over time.

For hundreds or thousands of years, people have been observing changesin the chemical and physical properties of substancesin order to infer climate change.

Because it takes long periods oftime for the climate to change, systematic changes in the properties of substancesare difficult to observe.

Changes in systematicallydeposited substances that are affected by climate can indicate climate variations over time.

highlight-----错选B;highlight题是一大弱项啊

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发表于 2012-6-3 18:03:06 |显示全部楼层
TPO10 第三篇(错了4个)
1. According to paragraph 1, what was trueof Europe during the medieval period?
Agriculturalproductivity declined.
There was relatively little economicgrowth.
Thegeneral level of prosperity declined.
Foreign trade began to play an important rolein the economy.

【分析:事实题----错选D

lift out解除;选项B正确;

但选项D也没发现错误呀?】


10. According to paragraph 7, until theeighteenth century, it was the principal function of which of the following toprovide funds for the state?

Bills of exchange

Exchangers who took loans

Banks

Business investment
【其实是一个指代题,定位最后一句,找出their所指代的意思】


13. Look at the foursquares [] that indicate where the following sentencecould be added to the passage.
They could also avoid havingto identify and assess the value of a wide variety of coins issued in many different places.
Where wouldthe sentence best fit?
【插入题:错选A
正确选项C,后面的举例就是为了说明这句话】


14Directions: An introductorysentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete thesummary by selecting the THREE answer that express the most important ideas inthe passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they expressideas that not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.





Answer choices



Bringing more land undercultivation produced enough food to create surpluses for trade and investment as well as for supporting the largerpopulations that led to the growth of rural industry.


Most rural villages established anarrangement with a nearby urban center that enabled villagers to take advantage of urban markets to sell anyhandicrafts they produced.


Increases in population and theexpansion of trade led to increased manufacturing, much of it small-scale in character but some requiringsignificant capital investment.


Increasedcapital was required for the production of goods, for storage, for trade, andfor the provision of credit throughout of Europe as well as distant marketsoverseas.


Bills of exchange were invented inmedieval Italy but became less important as banks began to provide loans for merchants.


The expansion of trade was facilitated bydevelopments in banking and financial services and benefitted from thehuge influx of capital in the form of gold silver from the Americas.


【最后一个多选题,毫无意外的错了---请问这题有何答题技巧呢?】

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发表于 2012-6-5 20:08:08 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 rjj21664264 于 2012-6-5 20:09 编辑

TPO15阅读
第一篇(14错2)
5. According toparagraph 2, surplus snow affects a glacier in all the following ways EXCEPT:

It provides thepressure needed to cause glacial ice to flow.

It offsets lossesof ice due to melting, evaporation, and calving.

It brings about theformation of firm in the snow it buries.

It results intemperate glaciers that are thicker than polar glaciers.

【错选C,因为看到firm是第二段没有的,但是C怎么会对的呢?

bring about导致】


14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of thepassage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answerchoices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences donot belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented inthe passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.


Glaciers are part of Earth's hydrologic cycle.





Answer Choices


Glaciers, which atpresent contain 80 percent of Earth's freshwater, form when accumulated snow iscompressed and recrystallized into ice over a period of years.

When there are glacierson Earth, water is cycled through the glacier system, but the cycle period maybe hundreds of thousands of years during periods of ice ages.

The glacial systemis governed by precipitation and temperature in such a way that glaciers cannotform in temperate latitudes.

When glacial icereaches adepth of 30 meters, the weight of the ice causes ice crystals at the bottom toflow, and the resulting movement of the glacier carves the landscape.

Ifglobal warming melted the world's glaciers, sea level would rise about 60meters worldwide.

Glaciers have hadlittle effect on Earth's surface because only 2 percent of Earth's water iscurrently contained in glaciers, and there are fewer glaciers now than at mosttimes in the past.

【第五个选项为什么错?】

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发表于 2012-6-5 20:11:04 |显示全部楼层
TPO15 第二篇(13错5)




2. What can be inferred about whales from paragraph 1?
They are considered by someto be reptiles.
Their bodies arebuilt in a way that helps them manage extremely cold temperatures.
They are distantly relatedto leatherback turtles.
They can swim fartherthan leatherback turtles.
【第一次错选D,第二次错选A,题目看错了,是讲whale,啊!!!!!崩溃!!!仔细!!!
8. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essentialinformation in the
highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choiceschange the meaning in important ways orleave out essential information.
In a turtle'scountercurrent exchange system, outgoing vessels lie near enough to ingoingones that heat can be exchanged from the former to the latter before reachingthe turtle's flippers.
Within the turtle'sflippers, there is a countercurrent exchange system that allows colder bloodvessels to absorb heat from nearby warmer bloodvessels and then return warmed blood to the turtle's body.
In a countercurrent exchangesystem, a turtle can pick up body heat from being close enough to otherturtles, thus raising its blood temperature as it passes them.
When a turtle places itsflippers close to its body, it is able to use its countercurrent exchangesystem to transfer heat from the warmer blood vessels in its body to the coolerblood vessels in its flippers.
B选项,return warmed blood to the turtle’s body属于无中生有】


11. According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements is most accurate about young leatherback turtles?
They lack thecountercurrent exchange systems that develop in adulthood.
Their rate of growth isslower than that of other seaturtles.
They lose heat easily even with insulation and countercurrent exchange systems.
They switch between cold-blooded and warm-blooded modes throughouttheir hatchling stage.
【没有看仔细,单词不认识;hatchling:初生个体】

12. Look at the foursquares [] that indicate where thefollowing sentence could be added to the passage.
However, these animals haveadditional means of staying warm.
Where would the sentence bestfit?
【看到the way they do it


13. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of thepassage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answerchoices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences donot belong in the summary because they express ideas that are notpresented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question isworth 2 points.


Contrary to what we wouldexpect of reptiles, the leatherback turtle is actually warm-blooded.



Answer Choices

Even thoughthey swim into cold ocean waters, leatherbacks maintain their body heat in muchthe same way as sea turtles in warm southern oceansdo.
The leatherback turtleuses a countercurrent exchange system in order to keep the flippers fromdrawing heat away from the rest of the body.
Theshape of the leatherback turtle's flippers is especially important inmaintaining heat in extremely cold northern waters.
The leatherbackturtle is able to maintain body heat through sheer size.
Leatherbacks havean insulating layer that can be considered the reptilian version of blubber.
Youngleatherbacks often do not survive to adulthood because they are not able toswitch from a cold-blooded way oflife to a warm-blooded one quickly enough.
sheer:透明的,陡峭的,完全】

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发表于 2012-6-5 20:12:15 |显示全部楼层
TPO15 第三篇 (14错3)

7. According to paragraph 4,what aspect of extinction episodes does the companion-star hypothesissupposedly clarify?
Their location
Their frequency
Their duration
Their severity
【题目没看清楚导致的错误,不可原谅;根据periodicallyrise定位】


10. In stating that no asteroiditself has ever been recovered, the author emphasizes which of thefollowing?
The importance ofthe indirect evidence for a large asteroid
The fact that noevidence supports the asteroid‑impact hypothesis
The reason many researchersreject the Alvarez hypothesis
The responsibility ofscientists for not making the effort to discover the asteroid itself
【是不是可以根据后面一段话来推测呢?】


14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of thepassage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answerchoices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences donot belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented inthe passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
There have been many attempts to explain the causes ofmass extinctions.



Answer Choices

Asteroid impacts, evolutionarydevelopments, and changes in Earth's climate and in the positions of thecontinents have all been proposed as possible causes of mass extinctions.
Researchers have observed 26-million-year cycles inextinction rates of a number of fossil groups that could all be attributed tothe same cause.
According to the Alvarez hypothesis, much of theiridium originally present on Earth was thrown into the atmosphere as a resultof an asteroid impact that also caused a mass extinction.
The unusual distribution of iridium on Earth andthe presence of craters and heat-shocked quartz are central to the theory thatan asteroid impact caused the late Cretaceous event.
The collision between Earth and a large asteroidresulted in massive damage and generated enough heat to cause irreversiblechanges in Earth's atmosphere.
There was a particularly large mass extinction thatoccurred around 250 million years ago at the end of the Permian period, whosecause could not be determined.

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