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[a习作temp] 第一次练习Argument一篇 [复制链接]

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发表于 2020-9-5 17:10:16 |显示全部楼层
The following appeared in a letter from the owner of the Sunnyside Towers apartment building to its manager.
"One month ago, all the showerheads on the first five floors of Sunnyside Towers were modified to restrict the water flow to approximately one-third of its original flow. Although actual readings of water usage before and after the adjustment are not yet available, the change will obviously result in a considerable savings for Sunnyside Corporation, since the corporation must pay for water each month. Except for a few complaints about low water pressure, no problems with showers have been reported since the adjustment. Clearly, restricting water flow throughout all the twenty floors of Sunnyside Towers will increase our profits further."
Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation is likely to have the predicted result. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation.


Owner of the Sunnyside Towers apartments argued that it is lucrative to lower the water pressure of all floors of the building. However, this idea may not function well as they expected because they miss some critical factors.

Firstly, the situation in first five floors are not neccessary a good indicator to all floors. It is possbile that they take more shower everyday due to a longer time staying at home or a warmer temprature. Therefore they may react more fiercely to a lower pressure of showerheads. Besides, there might be a few apartments of first five floor still available for sale. A less demand of water supply due to apartments unoccupied may mislead the reporter, in that showering water is not that important for living. Before restricting the water flow, owners should be more conviced that people live in upper floors are in a similar way in the situation of showering usage.

Moreover, a few complaints does not neccessary reprents showers bear with the adjustment with no problem. There are, however, much more ways than complaining to the owner in expressing their unsatisfactory in the issue of showering. Except compaints, the showers can report this to media, including local TV or newspapers, twitter or facebook, request a official investigation on whether any misbehavior, or even submit a case to the court. Not to mention that some of them may choose to sell the apartment or cease the rent without complaining anything. Failure to obtain all evidences of the reactions of the showers may lead to a misjudge of the serverity of the problem.

Last but not least, simply reduce the showering water supply may not be able to increase the profits of the building. Profits equals to revenue minus costs, among which inclue labor, rent, operation, tax, etc,. Although a smaller size of showering water do lower the cost, other costs may increase and eventually neutralize the benefits from less payment of water supply. On the other hand, revenue may be decrease due to the low showerhead pressure. Potential clients who request for high level of sanitation would choose to purchase or rent apartments from competitors of Sunnyside Towers. If the sales or rents drop overlaps the cost saved, the measure may be counterproductive.

To sum up, owners should be more careful when evaluating the recommendation that lowering showerhead pressure will increase profits. They have to make sure that showers from upper floors share a simmilar way with that from first five floors and did not express unsatisfacory with measures other than a few complaints. Besides, they need to consider the extent that the adjustment may have a negtive effect on potential sales and rents with other costs remain the same.
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发表于 6 天前 |显示全部楼层
76. The following appeared in a newsletter offering advice to investors.
"Over 80 percent of the respondents to a recent survey indicated a desire to reduce their intake of foods containing fats and cholesterol, and today low-fat products abound in many food stores. Since many of the food products currently marketed by Old Dairy Industries are high in fat and cholesterol, the company's sales are likely to diminish greatly and company profits will no doubt decrease. We therefore advise Old Dairy stockholders to sell their shares, and other investors not to purchase stock in this company."
Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the advice and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the advice.


The advice from the newsletter suggests that investors should avoid purchasing or holding the share of Old Dairy Industries due to a potential deterioration of sales and profits of the company by arguing that a survey presents the proclivity of consuming low fat and cholesterol food while many of the products of Old Dairy Industries are high in fat and cholesterol. However, to further evaluate the whether the advice is sound and reasonable, a few questions remain to be answered.

First of all, one may question if the survey is conducted correctly and the people answered the survey would really do as what they say. It is possible that the quiz sheet is deliberately designed that no negative options for healthy would be chosen by respondents. Alternatively, the sample of the survey may be too limited, for example only dozens out of millions people in the city are interviewed, to support a persuasive estimation that people are more like low fat and cholesterol foods than high ones. Even if the survey tell us the truth about true desire of respondents, it is doubt that they would still prefer to consume high fat and cholesterol foods while orally claim they would not do so.

Do the desire to reduce intake of foods containing low fats and cholesterol lead to the same situation in sales and profits of Old Dairy Industries? Not necessary. Measures such as a large size of promotions would be taken by the company to prevent the downtrend of consumption. Even if the sales do fall due to the change of consumer behaviour, the company can still make other efforts to protect total profits uneffected on condition that other costs - labour, administration, materials and tax, etc, - reduced considerably. On some cases, profits may possibly be increased if the saving is so large that it exceeds the drop of sales.

Last but not least, even if the above mentioned facts - diminished sales and profits due to a deterioration of spending on high fats and cholesterol foods – happen, before deciding not to hold or purchase the stock investors should ask a few more questions to the advisor. Since performances of stocks may be affected by several factors, among which are economic circle, general emotion of the stock market, performances of peer companies and so on, can we simply link the stock price to the sales and profits of a single company? Other than that, whether obtain earnings is the only purpose of investors who buy and hold the share of the company? Investors may aim at grab the control of the company and thus may buy as many as shares regardless of profits in a very short period.

In summary, without those questions answered, the advice in the newsletter that to sell and not to hold shares of Old Dairy Industries on condition that a survey shows that 80% of respondents prefer not to purchase products of high fats and cholesterol – exactly what many of products Old Dairy manufactures - may be groundless and tenous and based on questionable reasoning. Therefore investors should be cautious to act on such advises.

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