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[study] [精彩分享]新概念英语第4册笔记 [复制链接]

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Golden Apple

发表于 2005-12-11 04:12:44 |显示全部楼层
圣诞节快到了,忍不住要回寄托看看,顺便给大家提前送上一份礼物,希望大家喜欢!:)其实并离开的太久,为什么这么怀念呀!相信以新概念4的经典程度,不论对考研还是GRE和TOEFL,都是大有裨益的,需要学习的 朋友收藏一下吧!

念英语Ⅳ(1)笔记 - -


                                       



*************************************WORDS*************************************
---the Near East:
Far East : 远东

---recount:叙述 emotionless
describe :
depict : a little emotional
narrate : temporal & spacial 根据时间和空间
portray : 细致生动的描述

---saga: 英雄故事,mostly real
legend : unreal 传说,传奇 Robin Hood

---migration : 移民 ---> 1) migrant  2)immigrant
      v. migrate :迁徙,迁移  ---> migratory bird 侯鸟

---anthropologist : anthrop
philo + sopher 爱 + 智慧 = 哲学家
biology : 生物学
geography : 地理学
ecology : 生态学
带-gy结尾的都是学科:biology 生物学 geography 地理学 ecology 生态学

---ancestor :祖先
an- “在前面”
forefather , forebear ,predecessor

---Polynesia 波利尼西亚
poly- “多”
polyandric:a wife with more than one hunsband
polygeny : 一夫多妻制

---flint:燧石
cobble : 鹅
Don't act as you were the only cobble on the beach
flinting hearted : 残忍、狠毒的人

---rot : 乱掉
Leave me rot. = Leave me alone.
Rot to death : 自生自灭
Soon ripe, soon rotten. 熟得快,乱得快.
He is rotten to core. 坏透顶了
decay :烂  ,decompose : 逐渐分解 , deteriorate 逐渐恶化

---trace :
trace the problem 找出问题
I follow your trace. =I follow where you go 我根着你.

---fossil : 化石


***************TEXT : Finding fossil man  By Robin Place***********************

We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write.
注:read of 读到 ---> speak of , talk of , know of , hear of
      非限定性从句,表原因
      口语要先于书面语 : Oral(spoken)language is earlier than written language.
      precede v.领先(于), 在...之前, 先于
      counterpart : two things or two people have the same position 配对(人)物
      Oral(spoken) language is earlier than written counterpart

But there are some parts of the world where even now people cannot write. The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas-legends handed down from one generation of story-tellers to another.
注:preserve vt. 保持, 保存;adj. 腌制的
      如果句子中有only,那么后面跟的表语结构就要用to do sth,而不用doing sth
      story-teller 说故事的人,fortuneteller,palmreader 算命先生

These legends are useful because they can tell us something about migrations of people who lived long ago, but none could write down what they did.


Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors of the Polynesian peoples now living in the Pacific Islands came from.
注:people + s : 民族

The sagas of these people explain that some of them came from Indonesia about
2,000 years ago.

But the first people who were like ourselves lived so long ago that even their sagas, if they had any, are forgotten. So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them to find out where the first 'modern men'
came from.
注:if they had any插入语
      例:His relatives , if he had, never went to visit him when he was hospitalized.
            他即使有亲戚也从来没有看过他
      find out 千方百计,费尽周折 = explore
      modern men = the men who were like ourselves

Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially flint, because this is easier to shape than other kinds.
注:however --anywhere you want 要加标点
      but , yet 不加任何标点,only at the beginning of the sentence
      therefore - 自由,so - 不自由
      tool 小工具 ;instrument 实验仪器;equipment 设备;shape 成型 ;教育,改造

They also have used wood and skins, but these have rotted away.
注:may also have : 表推测
      peel 果皮 , leather 皮革 , hide 兽皮 , cowhide 牛皮

Stone does not decay, and so the tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the men who made them have disappeared without trace.
注:without (any) trace 无影无踪


***********************************EXERCISE************************************
(1)文中加下划线的句子

(2)仿写小作文一篇

[ Last edited by polymath on 2005-12-11 at 04:38 ]
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Mencius said,"When heaven is about to confer a great office on any man,it first exercises his mind with suffering, and his sinews and bones with toil.It exposes his body to hunger………….By all these methods, it stimulates his mind, consolidates his character, and increases his efficiency".

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Golden Apple

发表于 2005-12-11 04:14:01 |显示全部楼层

新概念英语Ⅳ(2)笔记- -


                                       


*************************************WORDS*************************************

---flocks and herds
flock 羊群
the birds of the same feather flock together. 物以类聚、人以群分
You are the same flock.
herd 多用于牛群,  cow herd  , cowboy ,school shoal
throng and crowd 人群 ,swarm n.蜂群, 一大群 v.涌往, 挤满

---owe 感激
欠 I owe you . I owe you a big favor.
欠 issue
oblige , indebt 欠债 , appreciate 常用口语词
正式 grateful, thankful

---beast 兽 ,可以用于形容人野蛮无比
creature 可以指小孩、女人,不用于男性

---fraction : 小部分,分数,小数
a fraction of rice of suffice
a fraction of
moved a fraction of a step.
移了一小步

---on one's behalf:代表...利益
I beat you on your behalf.
on behalf of somebody / something
on behalf of Chinese goverment 代表中国政府
extend to
on behalf of  = represent
on one's behalf : for one's sake / benefits
in behalf of:For the benefit of; in the interest of.
为了…;为了…利益
behalf:Interest, support, or benefit.
利益、支持或好处

---authority 1)当局(只能用复数) 2)权威(可用单数或复数)
administration government
authorize 批准 ,authoritative 权威性的 , authoritarian 独裁的
dictator 独裁者 dictatorial 独裁的

---census 统计数字
The fifth nationwide population census.人口普查
censor 审查员   censorious 挑剔的,挑刺的

---acre 英亩
1 acre = 4047 square meters  平方米 ,cubic meters 立方米

---football pitch
football yart , football court , football field
soccer n.英式足球
rugby n.橄榄球

---content 目录,“满足”作表语,不能出现在定语结构中
He is content with status quo. 满足现状。
contented heart 心满意足的人,知足的人

---space 宽恕
space me , He doesn't space himself.
I space no efforts to learn English.
space no efforts 不遗余力的...

***********TEXT:Spare that Spider from The Listener By T.H.Gillespie***********

Why, you may wonder, should spiders be our friends? Because they destroy so many insects, and insects include some of the greatest enemies of the human race.
注:greatest enemies 天敌 dying enemy ,crying enemy ,dear enemy
human race 人的种族,一般不加复数,表示一个总称

Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals.
注:impossible ,probable和 possible 不要以人开头
It is impossible for sb. to do something
likely 可以用人作主语 I'm likely to go
devour 狼吞虎咽 devour the food ,make a cake of myself 吃个痛快
make a god of myself, devour the book 贪婪的看书
if it were not for 如果不是因为
I would  not survive if it were not for his timely help.
but for =if it were not for ... 用虚拟语气

We owe a lot to the birds and beasts who eat insects but all of them put together kill only a fraction of the number destroyed by spiders.
注:owe : 感激,欠 I owe you. I owe 5 yuan to you.
all of them put together 把他们堆在一起 ,kill是谓语动词
We two put together can match him in weight.

Moreover, unlike some of the other insect eaters, spiders never do the least harm to us or our belongings.
注:Moreover 表示递进手段,what's more ,furthermore
do harm to 表伤害

Spiders are not insects, as many people think, nor even nearly related to them.
as many people think 正如人们认为一样

One can tell the difference almost at a glance for a spider always has eight legs and an insect never more than six.
注:glance 看得全 glimpse 看不全,稍微一
take glimpse of , take a glance

How many spiders are engaged in this work on our behalf?
注: are engaged in 从事...
The line is engaged.占线 , she is engaged 订婚

One authority on spiders made a census of the spiders in a grass field in the south of England, and he estimated that there were more than 2,250,000 in one acre; that is something like 6,000,000 spiders of different kinds on a football pitch.
注:authority on
sth. like = about ,大约 ,I'm something like 100 pounds in weight.
of different kinds -- all kind of 6,000,000 spiders

Spiders are busy for at least half the year in killing insects.
注: be busy in doing sth.

It is impossible to make more than the wildest guess at how many they kill,
but they are hungry creatures, not content with only three meals a day.
注:make guess at 猜   ,make wild guess 吓猜
make more than the wildest guess at 最高程度由你猜

It has been estimated that the weight of all the insects destroyed by
spiders in Britain in one year would be greater than the total weight of
all the human beings in the country.
注:would 表假设 ,

grasshopper 蚂蚱 ,jobhopper 跳槽者
cuckoo 布谷鸟,杜鹃 dragonfly 蜻蜓,earthworm 蚯蚓 flea 跳蚤, wall  lizard 壁虎
ladybird 瓢虫,花大姐
Mencius said,"When heaven is about to confer a great office on any man,it first exercises his mind with suffering, and his sinews and bones with toil.It exposes his body to hunger………….By all these methods, it stimulates his mind, consolidates his character, and increases his efficiency".

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Golden Apple

发表于 2005-12-11 04:16:30 |显示全部楼层

新概念英语Ⅳ(3)笔记- -[/align]
                                       



*************************************WORDS*************************************

---alpinist n.
climber ,mountaineer , Alps , alpine ,Alps range

---attain
to get to ,to arrive at/in , to attain at in , to attain one's goal
to attain the top /peak/summit , attain youth ,
attainment ,attainments : 成就 ,accomplishment

---perilous :危险的,随时可能到来的危险 avalanche 雪崩
peril

---shudder n vi.
tremble , quiver , shiver
shudder : quick and sudden
shiver : cold and nervous
quiver : excitement, maybe cold
tremble : long and very obvious

---go out of one's way  有意地,故意地

---court:
1. 朝廷 , courtier 朝臣
2。courteous 彬彬有礼的
3.法庭
4.娱乐场
足球场 soccer / football court
高尔夫球场golf court
5.追求 court sb
6.招致 Pride courts failure

---solitary : 唯一的,孤独的
solo 独唱,独奏
solitude : 孤独 I live in solitude. = I live a lonely life.

---pioneer : young pioneers 少先队员

---impoverish : 使贫困
A great many men will cheerfully face impoverishment if they can
secure 保证 complete ruin 破产 for their rivals 竞争对手. 乐观对待贫困问题

---coarse :
coarse throat 嗓子哑 ,sore throat 嗓子发炎
coarse fare 粗粮 ,refine fare 细粮
coarse and refined
in a coarse manner 粗暴无礼

---settlement n.

---boast v n.
以人作主语 , 表示夸耀
以物作主语, 表示拥有
He boasted (that) of his knowledge.
The center boasts a team of high quality(qualified researchers).

---parishioner n.教区居民
parish 教区
A member of a parish. 教区的居民

---shepherd : sheep + herd  牧羊人

---the Alps n. 阿尔卑斯山脉
Alpine adj. 阿尔卑斯山的


*****************TEXT:Matterhorn Man By Walter Unsworth************************

Modern alpinists try to climb mountains by a route which will give them good sport, and the more difficult it is, the more highly it is regarded.
注:good sports :stiulus 刺激 ,thrilling 震撼,兴奋
    regard : 珍重,珍视  regard sb with sth (感情词 love,hatred,horror ,respect)

In the pioneering days, however, this was not the case at all.
注:pioneering days --ancient
    not at all 根本 ,case 这回事

The early climbers were looking for the easiest way to the top because the summit
was the prize they sought, especially if it had never been attained before.
注:be doing 表达当时的行动(状态)
    summit : 山顶 ,peak
       The scenery is at the peak of the moutain.无限风光在先锋
       I am at the top of the world.
       summit meeting : 峰会
    seek - sought
    attain : 到达 - conquer :征服

It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of the most perilous nature, equipped in a manner which would make a modern climber shudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement. They had a single aim, a solitary goal-the top!
注:nature :特点,特性 of the most perilous nature
   The most perilous difficulties and dangers, of the most perilous nature
   He is the kindest man. = He is the man of the kindest nature.
   equipped , 表示当时的一种伴随
   in a manner 以这样的方式
   make sb do sth
   at the thought : 一想到 ,一提到(mention), 一想到(idea)
      一想到什么东西,后面加介词 of
      at the thought of their poor equipment
   go out of their way : 刻意,intentionally
注:eye catching 引人注目

It is hard for us to realize nowadays how difficult it was for the pioneers.
注: nowadays 现在回想起来,插入语,可以放在句首

Except for one or two places such as Zermatt and Chamonix, which had rapidly
become popular, Alpine villages tended to be impoverished settlements cut
off from civilization by the high mountains.
注: Except for 除。。。之外
    cut off = which are cut off,切断 power is cut off.

Such inns as there were were generally dirty and flea-ridden; the food simply
local cheese accompanied by bread often twelve months old, all washed down
with coarse wine.
注: inn : small inn ,holiday inn 假日旅馆
    flea-ridden 跳蚤
    as there were : 可以这么说, as it were 插入语
       This book is, as it were, his lift portrait. 可以这么说,这本书是他人生写照
    the food (was) simply
    vodka 伏特加,wine 低度酒,alcohol ,alcoholic 酒鬼 ,workholic 工作迷

Often a valley boasted no inn at all, and climbers found shelter wherever they
could--sometimes with the local priest(who was usually as poor as his
parishioners), sometimes with shepherds or cheese-makers.
注:boast 拥有,priest 牧师

Invariably the background was the same: dirt and poverty, and very uncomfortable.
For men accustomed to eating seven-course dinners and sleeping between fine linen
sheets at home, the change to the Alps must have been very hard indeed.
注: be accustomed to ,be used to + 名词,动名词
    course 一道菜 ,scratch a meal 早餐 ,snack快餐(中午) ,dinner(晚上)
    change:适应 the change to
      Education brings great changes to his outlook/view on life.

Mencius said,"When heaven is about to confer a great office on any man,it first exercises his mind with suffering, and his sinews and bones with toil.It exposes his body to hunger………….By all these methods, it stimulates his mind, consolidates his character, and increases his efficiency".

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Golden Apple

发表于 2005-12-11 04:24:38 |显示全部楼层

新概念英语Ⅳ(4)笔记 -

-

                                       


*************************************WORDS*************************************

---perceive 觉察,瞬间感觉到
to make out 费劲心思辨认出
I looked thoroughly for my elderly mother,finally I make her out.
Yeah,I remembered ,I finally make him out.
I perceive a fly in my teacup.

---detect /di5tekt/
vt.察觉, 发觉, 侦查, 探测
v.发现

---Perceive 察觉,瞬间感觉到的
to make out 费尽心机辨出
I looked thoroughly for my elderly mother, finally I make her out .
Yeah, I remembered, I finally make him out.
I perceive a fly in my teacup.

---safe(1.5)/seif/ n.保险柜

---institute [ 5institju:t ]
n.学会, 学院, 协会
vt.创立, 开始, 制定, 开始(调查), 提起(诉讼)

---opaque(1.10)/+u'pek/ n.不透明物 adj.不透明的, 不传热的, 迟钝的

---elbow n.肘
elbow one’s way (用肘)挤出
elbow one’s way out of the crowed.挤出人群

---slipper(1.11)/'slip+/ n.拖鞋

---make out v.书写, 填写, 拼凑, 进展, 说明, 设法应付, 理解, 辨认出, 了解

---blindfold(1.13)/'blaindf+uld/ adj.& adv.被蒙上眼睛的

---cease /si:s/ v.停止, 终了
ceasefire n.停火,停战
ceaseing 停止, 结束 ceasing /`si:sIN/ n.停止, 终了, 中止
ceaseless adj.不停的, 不断的


***********TEXT:Seeing Hands from The Listener By Eric De Mauny****************

In the Soviet Union several cases have been reported recently of people who
can read and detect colors with their fingers, and even see through solid
doors and walls.
注:
a."of people who can ...see through.. walls"整个修饰cases,由于太长,所以放
    在句尾,避免“头重脚轻”。
b.阅读时可以分成两句阅读。第一个分句,发现了几个实例。第二个实例,这些实例是
   什么。

One case concerns an eleven-year-old schoolgirl, Vera
Petrova, who has normal vision but who can also perceive things with
different parts of her skin, and through solid walls. This ability was first
noticed by her father. One day she came into his office and happened to put
her hands on the door of a locked safe. Suddenly she asked her father why
he kept so many old newspapers locked away there, and even described the
way they were done up in bundles.

Vera's curious talent was brought to the notice of a scientific research
institute in the town of Ulyanovsk, near where she lives, and in April she
was given a series of tests by a special commission of the Ministry of
Health of the Russian Federal Republic. During these tests she was able to
read a newspaper through an opaque screen and,stranger still,  by moving
her elbow over a child's game of Lotto she was able to describe the figures
and colors printed on it; and, in another instance, wearing stockings and
slippers, to make out with her foot the outlines and colors of a picture
hidden under a carpet.
注: a. 并列结构。"she was able to read.., was able to describe...; and,... to
    make out..."
b. 插入语,"stranger still",递进,“更加奇怪的是”
c, make out with sth(a). sth(b).通过a看清楚b,或者,make out s with a

Other experiments showed that her knees and shoulders
had a similar sensitivity. During all these tests Vera was blindfold; and,
indeed, except when blindfold she lacked the ability to perceive things
with her skin.
注: a. "and, indeed,"连接两个句子用连词and,加上副词indeed,表示关系。
b. 分号";"的用法。
   semicolon(分号)

It was also found that although she could perceive things
with her fingers this ability ceased the moment her hands were wet.


***********************************课文注释************************************

1 of people who can read…,这个定语从句用来修饰主语cases,由于太长,因此被移至谓语之后。

2 through solid walls 与 with different parts of her skin 并列,作 perceive 的状语。

3 lock something away,把……锁藏起来。

4 do up,引起捆,包

5 bring … to the notice of,引起某人注意。

6 except when blindfold,其中 when之后省略了 she was。

7 the moment her hands were wet,这是一个时间状语从句,the moment有“一……就……”的意思。
Mencius said,"When heaven is about to confer a great office on any man,it first exercises his mind with suffering, and his sinews and bones with toil.It exposes his body to hunger………….By all these methods, it stimulates his mind, consolidates his character, and increases his efficiency".

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Golden Apple

发表于 2005-12-11 04:26:25 |显示全部楼层

新概念英语Ⅳ(5)笔记- -


                                       


【词汇讲解】

---gorilla 大猩猩

---something of
---paradox :自相矛盾(相对的) contradiction矛盾(absolute 绝对的)
   paradoxical 荒谬的
---romantic :富有幻想的 dreaming
    visionary 幻影的,幻想的,梦想的 n. 空想家,梦想家,好幻想的人
---stereotyped :老一套的,常见的, 铅版印刷
---intrepid : 勇敢的
   正式用法: brave ,valiant ,gallant ,dauntless
   口语词:guts(gutsy勇气)
Abominable Snowman (yeti) 雪人 :abominable 讨厌的,可恶的
---haunt
   The old memeries still huant me, ring in my ear.
   haunted 闹鬼的
   I often haunt about the bar.光顾

---elusive
   elude 躲闪 elude tax
   the problem eludes me 我对这个问题百思不得其解

   
---mount 陈列,放置
---monster 怪物
---ancestral 祖先的
---dark jungles 不透光的密林
---naturalist 博物学家


【课文】

The gorilla is something of a paradox in the African scene.
注:the + n.(s) 表示一类 The gorilla(s)
    something of a paradox 自相矛盾
    their idea vary

One thinks one knows him very well.
{For a hundred years or more he has been killed,captured,and imprisoned in zoos.
His bones have been mounted in natural history museums everywhere, and he has always exerted a strong fascination upon scientists and romantics alike.}
    captive 俘虏
    exerted a strong fascination upon 对于谁有一个强烈的魅力
    exert...on ...施加(压力)
    impose influence on 施加影响 ; impose pressure no 施加压力
    have a strong fascination for  
    He has always had a strong fascination for scientists..
    The gorilla is always fascinating to scientists。。。
    alike adv. 相同,一样    adj.作表语   The two are alike。
     形容词以a开头,绝大部分作表语
        asleep 睡着的,awake 醒着的,afloat 票着的

He is the stereotyped monster of the horror films and the adventure books, and an obvious (though not perhaps strictly scientific) link with our ancestral past.
注:the stereotyped monster of the horror films恐怖电影的经典模式
    the adventure books 历险记
    scientific movie 科幻片
    link with 。。。 与。。。相连
    though (it is)not perhaps strictly scientific 尽管话说回来,不是严格的科学概念
    though 从句中主语和主句相同,可以省略

Yet the fact is we know very little about gorillas.
注:Yet ... 句首; however... 自由位置

No really satisfactory photograph has ever been taken of one in a wild state, no zoologist, however intrepid, has been able to keep the animal under close and constant observation in the dark jungles in which he lives.
注:photographer 摄影师
    take pictures / photos 照相
    of one ... 后置定语;one 代 gorilla
    in a wild state 野生状态下
    zoology 动物学 -logy, -ogy 表示学科
    keep the ...under ...observation 把某事物置于观察之下
      I have to keep the boy under close control. 严格控制 / To control the child strictly
    插入语:however intrepid = no matter how intrepid  无论多勇敢
        No man ,however intelligent, is perfect. 没有是完美,尽管他聪明无比
        No place,however peaceful and tranquil宁静, is a paradise.
     
{Carl Akeley, the American naturalist, led two expeditions in the nineteen-twenties, and now lies buried among the animals he loved so well.
注:expedition 探险队
    lie buried 形容词作定语 lie awake,lie crouched 蜷着腿睡

But even he was unable to discover how long the gorilla lives, or how or why it dies, nor was he able to define the exact social pattern of the family groups, or indicate the final extent of their intelligence.}
注:how long the gorilla lives 猩猩的寿命客观的事实
    organ's decay 器官衰竭
    group living; individual living
    智力 intelligence -- IQ , intelligence quotient n.商, 份额
    CIA -- the Central Intelligence Agency of the U.S. 美国中央情报局
    CID -- Criminal Investigation Division(部门) 重案组

All this and many other things remain almost as much a mystery as they were when the French explorer Du Chaillu first described the animal to the civilized world a century ago.
注:as much ... as... = the same as
    remain a mystery the same as they were
    civilized world 文明世界  / savaged world 野生世界(猩猩)
    civilized : to get away from wild life 脱离野生生活
    model 模范: pace setting unit 规定步调的单位
    I'm a pace soldiery.
    He is as much a musician as a writer. / He is both a musician and a writer.

The Abominable Snowman who haunts the imagination of climbers in the Himalayas is hardly more elusive.

【课文注释】

the + n.(s) 表示一类: the gorilla(s)
scene 场景
in the African scene : Africa as the background
gather place 聚集地

something of a paradox 自相矛盾(人对猩猩的观点) contradictory ideas about him
主题句:One thinks one knows him very well.
问题:Yet the fact is we know very little about gorillas.

Their ideas vary。人们对他的观点相差很大。
For a hundred years or more 一百年甚至更多(包括一百年)
For more than one hundred years 一百多年

西方,动物一般用人称代替。本文中,gorillas用him代替。另外有:
cat – she, dog – he .

imprisoned 关起来圈养
be mounted in natural history museums 陈列在自然历史博物馆

重点句型:
He exerts a strong fascination upon(on) Sb. 施加给人们强大的魅力
exert … on … 施加(压力)
impose … on … ,例如 impose influence on , impose pressure on
上句可表示为 He has a strong fascination for Sb.
或The gorilla is always fascinating to Sb.

alike adv.相同,一样 adj.只能做表语。例如:
The two are alike. 这两人真像。
形容词只要以a开头,99.99%都做表语。不能做定语词。
例如:asleep , awake ,afloat等

He is the stereotyped monster of the horror films and the adventure books.
stereotyped – old time 老样子 horror films 恐怖片
film (英) movie (美) the stereotyped monster 经典模式

省略主语and (he is) an obvious (…) link with our ancestral past
link with … 与…相联系 our ancestral past (n.)

though not perhaps strictly scientific
尽管话说回来,不是严格的科学概念
though 引导的从句主语和主句相同,可以省略。
Eg: I arrived at the meeting , though (I was ) late.

Yet 与however ,表示转折,意思完全相同。但yet 用在句首,however加标点,可以用在自由位置。

重要句型:
No really satisfactory photograph has ever been taken of one in …
Take picture / photograph 照相
of one 定语后置,satisfactory photograph of one。主要是为了句子的平衡。One 指gorilla
in a wild state 在野生状态下

keep the … under … observation 把某事处于观察之下
keep the city clean 保持城市清洁

close and constant observation 持续不断的观察
Eg: I have to keep the boy under close control.
To control the boy very strictly.
插入语:however intrepid = no matter how intrepid 无论多么英勇
Eg: No man , however intelligent , is perfect.
No palace, however peaceful and tranquil , is a paradise.

lies buried here among the animals he loved so well
埋葬在他所钟爱的动物中间
形容词做状语:lie awake , lie crouched

lifespan 寿命
how long the gorilla lives
因为猩猩的寿命客观存在,所以live 用一般现代时。
Organ’s decay 器官衰竭
Nor 引导否定并列句,与unable并列

生活方式:group living , individual living

智力:intelligence – IQ , intelligence quotient
CIA – the Central Intelligence Agency of America
CID – Criminal investigation Division 重案组,罪犯调查科

All this and many other thing remain (amost as much ) a mystery (as ) they were.
as much as 同the same as
…remain a mystery the same as they were.
He is as much a musician as a writer.= He is both a musician and a writer.

civilized world 文明世界
savaged world 野生世界
civilized : to get away from wild life
中文中的“文明单位”不能用civilized , 应该用model 或pace setting unit
I’m a pace soldiery。我是排头兵。

The Abominable Snowman who haunts the imagination of climbers in the Himalayas is hardly more elusive.
那萦绕在喜马拉雅山爬山者脑海中的那种令人难以捉摸的雪人,看起来也不一定比我们研究的大猩猩更加令人费尽心思。(通过侧面比较,引出结论,一种有用的写作方法)
Abominable Snowman 作比较,省略gorilla
Mencius said,"When heaven is about to confer a great office on any man,it first exercises his mind with suffering, and his sinews and bones with toil.It exposes his body to hunger………….By all these methods, it stimulates his mind, consolidates his character, and increases his efficiency".

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Golden Apple

发表于 2005-12-11 04:27:34 |显示全部楼层

新概念英语Ⅳ(6)笔记- -


                                       


【词汇降解】

---take leave to do sth 冒昧地..
I take leave to say. 我冒昧的说
I take leave to be frank. 恕我直言
take one's leave = take leave.  
    ...take my leave.
    Would you please take your leave?
    What a bore. /What a nuisance. / what a trial. / what a jerk.

---get down to sth / be engaged in
I get down to my studies.

---glorious 光辉灿烂的/glory 光荣
rosy , shining brilliant , magnificent , gorgeous
in one's glory
in one's day
in one's prime time
in one's golden days
in the pride of one's life 在某人的鼎盛时期

---rub n. 摩擦
at odds 有矛盾
bave words with sb. 和。。。拌嘴
Do you get the rub ? 你听懂了吗
Do you get the picture?
Do you catch me?
Do you get me?

---teenager n.青少年 10-18
  adolescent 13-16
  juvenile 青少年
  youth 20-30

---air of freedom 无拘无束
air 神态,多用复数
He always puts on airs. 摆谱
brrogant airs : 官气
finicky air 娇气

---dreary 沉郁的 / drearisome 无聊
sterile 枯燥无味
monotonous  乏味的
gloomy 沉闷
lifeless 无生气的

---ambition /ambitious
I have ambition for going abroad / to go abroad.
fish ... (wealth and fame)
chase ..,(fame and gains)
pursue...

---cosmic being
cosmonaut 宇航员 = astronaut
cosmic place  大都市 、/ metropolis

---violent 强烈的,暴力的 / nonviolence 非暴力
violent wind 狂风
violent death 暴死
vehement
turbulent
tumultuous
govern - governable - ungovernable

---suburban  见识不广的 - suburb 郊区
urbane 有礼貌的
short-sighted 目光短
narrow-minded / small-minded
insular 绝缘
provincial目光短浅的 - province 省

---conceited 骄傲 conceit
pride 自豪
big-headed 头发胀的
cocky 自负的 / chichen 胆小鬼
sweller 膨胀的

---presumptuous 自以为是的,自大的
over-confident 自高自大的
self-confident 自信的
fatuous 愚蠢的
ridiculous 荒谬的
senseless 没道理的
irrational 不合理的

---cliche 陈词滥调
monotone 一成不变

---ill-mannered  无礼貌的;粗野的

---presumptuous 太过分的;放肆的


【课文】Out of the Air   from The Listener By Fielden Hughes

People are always talking about 'the problem of youth'. If there is one -
which I take leave to doubt - then it is older people who create it, not
the young themselves.
注:straight forward 开门见山

Let us get down to fundamentals and agree that the
young are after all human beings - people just like their elders.

There is
only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young man has a
glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid future behind him;
and maybe that is where the rub is.
注:where the rub is 问题就在这里,结症所在

When I was a teenager, I felt that I was just young and uncertain - that I
was a new boy in a huge school, and I would have been very pleased to be
regarded as something so interesting as a problem.
注:something 重要的 。You are something。

For one thing, being a
problem gives you a certain identity, and that is one of the things the
young are busily engaged in seeking.

I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have not
a dreary commitment to mean ambitions or love of comfort.
注:air of freedom = freedom from care
    commitment 专注
    mean adj. 小气的,卑鄙的 = disgusting ,sick

They are not
anxious social climbers, and they have no devotion to material things.
注:social climbers 追求地位的人
    polish 擦,磨  apple polisher 溜须拍马   / bootlicker 拍马屁者
    have no devotion to 热爱(贬)
    material things 物质享受

All this seems to me to link them with life, and the origins of things. It's
as if they were in some sense cosmic beings in violent and lovely contrast
with us suburban creatures.
注:origin 起源 / original 原本的
    in some sense 可以这么说吧 (插入语)
    in contrast sense 与。。。比较
    suburban creatures  / mediocre 平庸的
    idol 偶像 ,idiot 傻瓜
   
All that is in my mind when I meet a young
person. He may be conceited, ill-mannered, presumptuous or fatuous, but I
do not turn for protection to dreary clichés about respect for elders - as if
mere age were a reason for respect. I accept that we are equals, and I will
argue with him, as an equal, if I think he is wrong.
注:turn for protection to 寻求保护(强调)
       turn to 求助
    cliche 陈词滥调,老生常谈  / honorable 荣誉的 / reverent 受人景仰的
    thought provoking 引人深思的
An old ox makes a straight furrow. 姜是老的辣

【课文注释】

People are always talking about 'the problem of youth'. If there is one -
which I take leave to doubt - then it is older people who create it, not
the young themselves.

notes:
a.people are always talking about和people always talk about语法上都正确。
   但是第一种说法有时隐含了抱怨的语气。
b. which I take leave to doubt,插入语,“恕我冒昧地怀疑一下”。
c. if.. then.., not..

-----------------------------------
There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young
man has a glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid future
behind him; and maybe that is where the rub is.

notes:
a. "...only one..:"there be句型,加上唯一性限定词only,和冒号,引起读者
     对后面内容的注意。
太过分的;放肆的
***************************************************************************
SENTENCES
----------------------------------
People are always talking about 'the problem of youth'. If there is one -
which I take leave to doubt - then it is older people who create it, not
the young themselves.

notes:
a.people are always talking about和people always talk about语法上都正确。
   但是第一种说法有时隐含了抱怨的语气。
b. which I take leave to doubt,插入语,“恕我冒昧地怀疑一下”。
c. if.. then.., not..

-----------------------------------
There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young
man has a glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid future
behind him; and maybe that is where the rub is.

notes:
a. "...only one..:"there be句型,加上唯一性限定词only,和冒号,引起读者
     对后面内容的注意。
b.  ".. an old man and a young one..the young man .. and the old one.."
     第一次说用man,第二次用one指代,避免用词重复。并列句式。对比。
c,  "and maybe that is where the rub is"可以套用,呵呵。
d, 学习此句陈述原因的做法。提炼模板。
     There is only one difference between A and B: A ... and B...; and
     maybe that is where the rub is.

----------------------------------
I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have
not a dreary commitment to mean ambitions or love of comfort. They are not
anxious social climbers, and they have no devotion to material things.

notes:
a.这是个句群。第一句是中心句。后面两句支持第一句的中心观点。
b.两个支持句结构类似,各自都是用and连接的两个分句。句式上的特点给人很好的
   印象。
c.air of freedom 自由的风度,dreary commitment to ambitions,对名声的乏味
   追求,devotion to material things,追逐物质。
d.这句很好,可以背诵。
------------------------------------
It's as if they were in some sense cosmic beings in violent and lovely
contrast with us suburban creatures.

notes:
a. in some sense某种意义上说
b. 对比句型,It's as if they are ... in ... contrast with us ...


------------------------------------
He may be conceited, ill-mannered, presumptuous or fatuous, but I
do not turn for protection for dreary clichés about respect for elders
- as if mere age were a reason for respect.

notes:
a. “sb/sth may be..,.. or .., but I do not turn to protection to ... - as
    if ..” 句型。 "sb/sth 也许...,...或者..,但是,我不想用..来保护自己,
      就好像...一样"
b. turn to 寻求帮助
c. 几个用词
Mencius said,"When heaven is about to confer a great office on any man,it first exercises his mind with suffering, and his sinews and bones with toil.It exposes his body to hunger………….By all these methods, it stimulates his mind, consolidates his character, and increases his efficiency".

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Golden Apple

发表于 2005-12-11 04:28:31 |显示全部楼层

新概念英语Ⅳ(7)笔记- -


                                       



【词汇讲解】

---goodwill n. 友好
goodwill games / ~ visit
pay a goodwill visit to
offical visit 官方访问
state visit 国事访问

---cricket 板球
as merry as a cricket(蟋蟀)

---inclination 意愿 - incline
be inclined to do sth
willing
show inclination to do sth.
follow one's inclination 随心所欲

---contest 比赛,a group of judges ,比如:选美
competition : socially 社会竞争
game : physically,mentally
match : quite,important
tournament : 淘汰赛;巡回赛
race : speed,赛车

---orgies of hatred
无边的仇恨

---orgy n. 恣意,放荡
revelry n. 狂欢 ~ in
spree : on a spree 狂欢

---competitive 竞争性的,中性词
aggressive 侵略性的
combative   贬义词

---pick up 随意挑选

---patriotism 爱国主义 - patriot 爱国者

---involve 卷入 - involve oneself in
be involved in

---prestige n. 声誉 - prestigious
fame ,renown(renowned 著名的),reputation,eminence

---disgrace vt. 丢脸 - grace , graceful , graceless
fame - defame
honor 尊敬 - dishonor 玷污
stigma 污点,瑕疵 - stigmatize

---savage 野性的
inhuman 野蛮的 , nonhuman (非人类的)
mercy  同情- merciless
ruth - ruthless
beastly 残忍的,野蛮的

---frankly 坦率的
candid 坦白的

---mimic 与 。。。极相似 ,只用作定语 ,mime
similar 可作定语和表语
alike 只作表语

---spectator 观众 - spectacle 壮丽的景色;眼镜
audience 听众 ,audial 听 ,aural 听觉的
visual 见
viewer 电视观众

---work... into ... 引起...感觉...
  work  oneself into + 感情词 , 把某人弄到。。。,比如:生气,使人激动起来

---fury n. 狂怒 furious 强于anger,annoyance,aggravation,rage(suddenly&quickly)

---absurb 荒唐的 illogical , irrational,ridiculous
---at any rat 无论... ,至少...  = at least
---do one's utmost to 竭尽全力去..
---village of green n.绿茵场
---pick up sides 为双方加油(不是挑边)

【课文】The Sporting Spirit By George Orwell

I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill
between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could
meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to
meet on the battlefield.
注:
amaze - surprised,astound,astonished ,前两个词都可以用作表语和主谓宾结构,
   后两个词只有表语结构
hear(see,watch,notice) sb. to do/doing 与感官相关的动词
create - promote
common people 平民大众
one another 彼此,相互
if only 只要,表虚拟

Even if one didn't know from concrete examples( the 1936 Olympic Games, for instance)
that international sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred, one could deduce it
from general principles.
注:orgies of hatred 无边的仇恨
    deduce : 推导

Nearly all the sports practiced nowadays are competitive. You play to win,and the game has little meaning unless you do your utmost to win. On the village of green 绿地, where you pick up sides and no feeling of local patriotism is involved, it is possible to play simply for the fun and exercise: but as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are aroused被激发起来. Anyone who has played even in a school football match knows this. At the international level sports is frankly mimic warfare.

But the significant thing is not the behavior of the players but the attitude of the spectators: and, behind the spectators, of the nations who work themselves into furies over these absurd contests, and seriously believe - at any rate for short periods - that running, jumping and kicking a ball are tests of national virtue.

【课文讲解】

I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill
between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could
meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to
meet on the battlefield.

notes:
a. I am always amazed when I hear people saying that..., and that....用于
    引出作者所要批驳的观点。可以记住。
b. if only ..peoples .. could meet ..at football...they would have no
    inclination to .. battlefield...
    虚拟语气
    If only I had more money, I could buy some new clothes.
    If only it stops raining, we can go for a picnic.
c. 首句引出反面观点。并具体化对方观点。
------------------------------------
Even if one didn't know from concrete examples( the 1936 Olympic Games,
for instance) that international sporting contests lead to orgies of
hatred, one could deduce it from general principles.

notes:
a. Even if one didn't know from concrete examples (..., for instance)
    that ..., one could deduce it from general principles.
    可套用的句型,that后面是作者的观点。
    如果从实例中还不能看清,至少能从常理推出。
b. orgies of hatred 见上词汇分析,仇恨的蔓延,仇恨的泛滥
c, 此句后作者显然要开始deduce the conclusion from general principles。
    第二段显然就是deduction。
-----------------------------------
On the village of green, where you pick up sides and no feeling of local
patriotism is involved, it is possible to play simply for the fun and
exercise: but as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as you
feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most
savage combative instincts are aroused.


notes:
a. ..., it is possible to ..: but as soon as the question
    of .. arises, as soon as ..., ...
    在什么情况下,..是可能的,但是一旦出现..的问题,一旦...., 就....了
-------------------------------------
...the nations who work themselves into furies over these absurd contests,
and seriously believe - at any rate for short periods - that running,
jumping and kicking a ball are tests of national virtue.

notes:
a. work .. into ..
    使..., ..
    使他们自己因为这些可笑的比赛而狂怒
    也就是,这些国家因为这些可笑的比赛而愤怒
    Furies是神话中的复仇三女神,作者用词有讲究
b. at any rate 相当于anyway,中文中相当于“不论如何”和“至少”。
c. absurd、 short,表明了作者的批判态度
d. running, jumping and kicking a ball are tests of national virtue.
Mencius said,"When heaven is about to confer a great office on any man,it first exercises his mind with suffering, and his sinews and bones with toil.It exposes his body to hunger………….By all these methods, it stimulates his mind, consolidates his character, and increases his efficiency".

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Golden Apple

发表于 2005-12-11 04:29:29 |显示全部楼层

新概念英语Ⅳ(8)笔记- -


                                       


【词汇讲解】
laundry n.洗衣店
customary a.通常的,司空见惯的
can vt.把....装罐
factor n.事实,因素
preserve vt.腌制
draw vt.挣得
pursue vt. 从事,进行
substantial a.相当的
trade n.手艺
accrue vi.增长
occupation n.工作

laundry n.洗衣店 I go to the laundry.我去洗衣服了。
-----------------------------------
can vt.把....装罐
can (美国常用) tin(英国常用)
can the fruit 水果罐头
ready-made food to heat it
-----------------------------------
preserve vt.腌制
preserved vegetables 腌菜 nutritious 有营养的
bean curd : 豆腐
保存-preserve , reserve , conserve,
reserve 预定
   I’d like to reserve two tickets.
   Please reserve a table for six.
conserve 常用于深林的保护,避免造成不必要的浪费
preserve 保存目的是使其保有鲜活力,保鲜
-----------------------------------
pursue vt. 从事,进行
   I’m pursuing English.我正在学英语。
   China pursues the opening policy.中国实施开放政策。
还有‘追求’的意思  He is pursuing the girl.
   A cold pursues me.感冒使我精神不振。(幽默的说法)
pursuit-名词 更加正式 in the pursuit of
-----------------------------------
trade n.手艺
tradesman 手艺人 craftsman 手艺人
spokesman 发言人
statesman 政治家 politician 玩弄权术的人
Jack of all trades,master for none.各行都懂一点,但都不精。
Two of a trade never agree.同行是冤家。
-----------------------------------
occupation n.工作 具有最宽泛的含义
occupy v. I’m occupied.我正忙着。
近义词:employment, profession
employee employer 强调雇用和被雇佣的关系 unemployment 失业
profession:宗教词 preach布道 pray祈祷
该词被赋予了崇高的含义,常形容highly skilled 如IT ,engineer
-----------------------------------
customary a.通常的,司空见惯的
custom n. 风俗 某一个种族或部落所遵循的原则
When in Rome,do as the Romans do.入乡随俗。
beijinger 哪国人哪个地区人都加个er
convention(usually accepted):世界都认可的规范和习俗
tradition:沿袭或流传下来,大到国家,小到一个家庭
-----------------------------------
factor n.事实,因素
-----------------------------------
draw vt.挣得
draw money 赚钱 The novel draws well.小说很畅销。
best-seller 最畅销 Movies draws well.很卖座。
land money land:得到 I land very profitable work.我得到个肥差。
-----------------------------------
substantial a.相当的 ,只作程度词 ,substance n.
considerable 相当的 fair sizable
   I draw considerable money.我赚大钱。
   considerate :体谅的 He is very considerate.
-----------------------------------
accrue vi.增长
只能作不及物动词 interests accrue 利息增长
accumulate , pile , build up , amass 都可作及物动词
grow :增长(不及物动词),种庄稼

【课文】 Education (W.O. Lester Smith)

Parents have to do much less for their children today than they used to do, and home has become much less of a workshop.
注:much放在比较前表示程度词
   much less 越来越不像,表程度, much more 越来越像
   workshop : 作坊;专题研讨会

Clothes can be bought ready made,washing can go to the laundry, food can be bought cooked, canned or preserved, bread is baked and delivered by the baker, milk arrives on the doorstep, meals can be had at the restaurant, the works' canteen, and the school dining-room.
注:ready made 现成的 ,作but方式状语
    go to 拟人手段
    cooked : 熟食 fast food ,snack
    milk arrives on the doorstep 被动和拟人
    works=factory(机械的,大型的)plant,mill,company :泛指
    canteen : 食堂 (self-help) , cafeteria n.自助餐厅 (高级一点) , dining-room : 学生食堂 ,diet :

It is unusual now for father to pursue his trade or other employment at home, and his children rarely, if ever, see him at his place of work.
注:if ever : 既便有的话,也是不多
    paternal society 父系社会

{Boys are therefore seldom trained to follow their father's occupation, and in many towns they have a fairly wide choice of employment and so do girls.}
注:therefore 因此
    wide choice 大量的选择机会
    so do girls 女孩也一样,coeducation 男女同校

The young wage-earner often earns good money, and soon acquires a feeling of economic independence.
注:wage-earner : 赚钱的人 , bread-earner :养家糊口者
    wage 给 labours周薪等短期工资  , salary 给白领阶层
    good money : 赚大钱
    acquires : 获得(不费吹灰之力easely get) Man acquires the ability to speak.
    feeling : sense  , sense of honor / pride / responsibility / master / humor / guilt
    superiority complex  : 优越感   ,complex 情节, inferior complex 自卑感

{In textile areas it has long been customary for mothers to go out to work, but this practice has become so widespread that the working mother is now a not unusual factor in a child's home life, the number of married women in employment having more than doubled in the last twenty-five years. }
注:textile areas :纺织业地区
    it has long been customary  习以为常
    long = for long time -> for long -> long
    maternal society 母系社会
    having 省略谓语 -- 独立主格
   

With mother earning and his older children drawing substantial wages father is seldom the dominant figure that he still was at the beginning of the century.

When mother works economic advantages accrue, but children lose something of great value if mother's employment prevents her from being home to greet them when they return from school.
注: accrue  vi.自然增加, 产生
     something ,后置定语,be of 结构
     something valuable greatly / something greatly valuable
     prevent from


【课文注释】

do much less much far 放在比较级之前表示程度词 I’m far better.
used t过去(一般习惯的动作)I used to walk for a while after supper.
and :表示结果
workshop:作坊 专题研讨会 同义词symposium
much less :越来越不像 表示程度词 much more 越来越像
ready-made: 现成的 作but方式状语
The meal is ready-made.饭好了,可以吃了。
go t 拟人手段
cooked:熟食 fast food snack canned:罐头食品 preserved:腌制的
bake:烤 baker:面包师 delivered:传送 doorstep
works=factory (机械的,大型的) plant(大型工厂) mill(加工木头的工厂) company(泛指)
canteen:食堂(self-help) cafeteria(高档的,餐馆的自助餐) dining-room:学生食堂
if ever :即便有的话也是不多
补全句子:….if ever,he can see him……
paternal society:父系社会
follow their father’s occupation 子承父业
wide choice:大量的选择机会
coeducation:男女同校 primary school:私塾
wage-earner:赚钱的人 bread-earner:养家糊口者
In your family ,who is the bread-earner?
相对而言,wage 给labours 而salary 给白领阶层
good money 赚大钱
acquires:获得(easily get)
Man acquires the ability to speak.强调自然获得
obtain 费尽劳力
feeling of economic independence:经济独立感
sence of honor/pride/responsibility/master/humor/guilt
superiority complex:优越感 complex:情节 inferior complex:自卑感
textile areas:纺织业地区如英国的Manchester
it has long been customary 早就习以为常
maternal society:母系社会
working mother:职业母亲
more than doubled:远远超出了以前的两倍
but this practice has become so widespread that the working mother is now a not unusual factor in a child’s home life,the number of married women in employment having more than doubled in the last twenty-five years。
the number of married women……years 是个省略谓语的独立主格句,主语与主句的主语不同。
something 后置定语 be of 结构
smething valuable greatly/smething greatly valuable
prevent from
Mencius said,"When heaven is about to confer a great office on any man,it first exercises his mind with suffering, and his sinews and bones with toil.It exposes his body to hunger………….By all these methods, it stimulates his mind, consolidates his character, and increases his efficiency".

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Golden Apple

发表于 2005-12-11 13:52:09 |显示全部楼层
没有需要的么?
Mencius said,"When heaven is about to confer a great office on any man,it first exercises his mind with suffering, and his sinews and bones with toil.It exposes his body to hunger………….By all these methods, it stimulates his mind, consolidates his character, and increases his efficiency".

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Libra天秤座 荣誉版主

发表于 2005-12-11 16:14:22 |显示全部楼层
thanks!!good job
西雅图的夜晚
月光照在飞机翅膀上
想让我留下来
     ----------豌豆@Seattle

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发表于 2005-12-21 23:08:46 |显示全部楼层
Originally posted by polymath at 2005-12-11 13:52
没有需要的么?

有有,楼主可否打个包,这样实在太累了

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发表于 2006-1-11 22:49:17 |显示全部楼层
不会做个附件传过来啊,最好压缩一下,呵呵

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发表于 2006-2-2 16:41:09 |显示全部楼层

只有十篇么?滴水不解渴 阿!

笔记不错呀,自己总结的?厉害!全在点子上。希望继续发噢

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发表于 2006-2-8 21:16:05 |显示全部楼层
好东东

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发表于 2006-3-18 16:05:52 |显示全部楼层
非常漂亮啊!辛苦了,搂主!
这年头还是好人多啊!
积德啊!
哪位大侠知道,哪里有第二册的笔记啊?
先谢了!

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RE: [精彩分享]新概念英语第4册笔记 [修改]
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